Aguinaldo allotted P35,000 to build a school named Universidad LITERARIA de FILIPINAS to spread pro-independent sentiments ~ Oct 1898; President of the University: Dr. Joaquin GONZALEZ B. Outside the Philippines 3) Diplomat ~ US - Felipe AGONCILLO ~ JAPAN - Mariano PONCE ~ ENGLAND - Antonio REGIDOR ~ FRANCE - Juan LUNA ~ AUSTRALIA - Eriberto ZARCAC ~ Did not gain any support v 13 Aug 1898: Mock Battle of Manila ~ Planned surrender of Agustin to US ~ In terms that there should be no Filipino participation v 14 Aug 1898: Official Spanish Surrender (this is what is happening in the Philippines) v But August 12 1898 by, a Protocol of Peace has already been signed between Washington and Madrid (efforts in Mock Battle were wasted) v Start of the negotiation for a treaty ➔ 10 Dec 1898: Treaty of Paris Cuba , Puerto Rico , and Philippines were given to America, but America had to pay $20,000,000 . ➔ But a treaty has to be ratified first before it takes effect. The problem is many Americans are against imperialism. ➔ Principle from the founding fathers: self- determinism v What drove Americans to sign the treaty ➔ Feb 4, 1899: San Juan Bridge Incident ➔ Private Willie Grayson encountered several Filipino soldiers (halt) ➔ Fired shots to Filipinos START OF PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR v Feb 6, 1899: The treaty was ratified . ~ Justifications ∆ an anarchy might occur in the Philippines if not helped and assisted by Americans ∆ White Man’s Burden: moral duty of civilizing the non-whites but with the assumption that these non- whites cannot civilize themselves. [built on racism] v Dec. 21, 1898: Benevolent Assimilation ~ Stated that the Americans “own” the Philippines after the defeat of Spanish v Unlike what the Spanish did: ~ Given individual rights & liberties ~ Filipinos have religious freedom ~ Aside from that, Americans made their promises come true ∆ Built a lot of hospitals ∆ It can be said that they contributed more than the Spanish v 2 Plans stated in the Proclamation released by the Americans 1) Defeat the Spanish FROM 01 MAY 1898 THERE HAVE BEEN NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN DEWEY AND BASILIO AGUSTIN, the governor general of the Philippines that time.
2) Build a Military Administration v Military Administrators ~ Gen. Wesley MERRITT ~ Gen. Elwell OTIS v Jan. 4, 1899 – Gen. Otis read the proclamation ~ Did not release it at first, he knew Aguinaldo will not agree with it ~ Removed terms for annexation in the PH before officialy releasing it v General Marcus MILLER – released an original copy of the proclamation ~ made Aguinaldo wonder v Jan. 6, 1899 – Aguinaldo released a proclamation ~ States that there are no talks with the Americans about an annexation ~ Released a declaration which states that the PH will revolt if the Americans release the proclamation v Feb. 4, 1899 – San Juan Bridge incident v Feb. 6, 1899- Ratification of Treaty of Paris v Battles that Occurred: 1) CENTRAL LUZON/MANILA ~ Gen. Arthur MCARTHUR vs. Gen. Antonio Luna 2) SOUTH LUZON ~ General Henry LAWTON vs. Gen. Pio del Pilar Note: rejection of the Filipinos was not the same 3) VISAYAS ~ Marcus Miller vs. Martin DELGADO ~
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- Philippine Revolution, Katipunan, DEL PILAR, GALLEON TRADE, Pedro PATERNO