Approximately 60 of irrigation water was lost in

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Approximately 60 % of irrigation water was lost in Central and Southern Asia, where major water irrigation channels are available for cotton farms. In the pro- duction of industrial fertilizers, cotton accounts for 1.5 % of the total global energy consumption annually, while emitting excessive amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (Organiccotton N.D.a). In addition to the devastation of natural resources, cotton production also con- tributes to climate change. For instance, according to the results obtained by the US Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA) greenhouse gas equivalencies (GGE) calculator (the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency N.D.), throughout the product s life cycle, one cotton T-shirt (based on an average weight of 0.4 lb) is estimated to emit about 2.1 kg CO 2 , or the equivalent of a carbon footprint generated by consuming 0.24 gallons of gas, burning 2.3 lb of coal, and driving an automobile (a sedan) for fi ve miles (Kirchain et al. 2015 ) (see Fig. 3 ). Furthermore, massive application of fer- tilizer nitrates will generate another greenhouse gas nitrous oxide that is 300 times more destructive than carbon dioxide (Organiccotton N.D.a). The impact of one T-shirt may look small, but the overall cotton s effects in the global textile industry are much more signi fi cant. For example, in 2013, cotton was manufactured for 25 million tons globally and around 40 % of these productions were used in the textile industry. Based on the EPAS s GGE calculation results, textile products made with cotton create 107.5 million tons of CO 2 emissions, the equivalent of the carbon footprints of annual burning of 25 coal- fi red power plants, electricity supply for 13.4 million American homes, annual forest carbon storage of 88 million acres, round-trips to the sun for 1,300 times by a sedan, and two years of carbon emissions from a sedan in New York state (see Fig. 4 ). Wool is a fi ber obtained from animals like sheep, goats, mohair goats (cashmere and mohair), musk oxen (qiviut), and rabbits (angora) (D Arcy 1986 ). Throughout production processes, wool contributes to climate change, from animal breeding to garment mothproo fi ng. Livestock s belching and gas passing emit methane gas, a source for greenhouse gases that accounts for approximately one quarter of annual agricultural methane Fig. 3 Greenhouse gas impacts of one cotton T-shirt (based on an average weight of 0.4 lbs) (Kirchain et al. 2015 ) 28 K.E. Lee
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emissions; the areas with large livestock populations experience land degradation issues that will cause vegetation change and soil erosion of the land. Water sources are contaminated and exceed suitable drinking and recreational usage levels by fecal matter in livestock farming areas, and the use of toxic chemicals, called the sheep dip, for sheep parasite removal negatively impacts the environment as well as workers (e.g., agricultural and craft workers) (Peta N.D.).
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