that is sent to a laboratory for analysis of the prostate-specific antigen level (PSA), which is used primarily to screen for prostate cancer. Research shows PSA results are higher than 4ng/mL are more likely to develop prostate cancer or have prostate cancer. PSA follows screenings are
RUNNING HEAD: Prostate-Specific Antigen 3 dependent upon findings of initial testing and should be considered of importance. At times, the PSA testing is used in conjunction with a digital rectal exam to test for prostate cancer in men or prostate biopsy for accurate diagnosing. A provider should not solely rely on the PSA to test for prostate cancer. Validity and Reliability When seeking to diagnose a patient's health condition appropriately, advanced practice nurses can use a selection of diagnostic tests; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests. Although research shows an elevated PSA level generally more then 4ng/ml indicates prostate cancer, this is not always true. The prostate- specific antigen test can cause false-positives and false-negatives. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, or urinary tract infections can also elevate PSA levels. It is estimated that about 75% of men with an elevated PSA, do not have cancer (Chun, 2017). Studies show that as men age, the risk for developing prostate cancer increases. Reports estimate that 6 or 7 of every 100 men who are currently 60 years of having a 6.29% chance of developing prostate cancer by the age of 70 (Arcangelo and Peterson, 2017, p. 536). As a future advanced practice nurse, it is crucial to know age affects the interpretation of PSA levels. Normal PSA values should be less than 2.7 in men younger than age 40 and 4.0 or less in men older than age 40 (Arcangelo and Peterson, 2017, p. 537). A prostate-specific antigen level has been known to change over time and should also not be used as the only reliable indicator for determining the presence of prostate cancer.
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- Summer '15