And last but not least major impacts arise from

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And last, but not least, major impacts arise from transport, such as carbon emissions and waste generation. Environmental and social issues are also present with more than 50 million animals suffering cruel deaths each year to bene fi t the fashion industry (Born Free USA 2014 ). The fur industry on its own currently kills around 30 million animals a year (Animal Equality, s.d.). These numbers are really high because neither fur nor fur trim is a by-product of the meat industry; fur comes from animals that are factory-farmed or trapped purely for fashion (Born Free USA 2014 ). Animals on those fur farms live in cramped, dirty cages and are killed using the cheapest methods, such as suffocation, gassing, or electrocution. Another scandal is that of leather coming from countries, such as India and China, where the animal throats are cut and their skin ripped off while they are still alive. This is far from the de fi nition of animal welfare coined by Hughes ( 1988 , p. 33), as a state of physical and mental health where an animal is completely in harmony with its environmental surroundings. According to Dobson ( 2003 ), consumers need to ponder about the implications of their routine purchasing decisions and change behaviors. This was called ecological citizenship by Dobson ( 2003 ). However, because most organizations are not transparent, consumers are not always aware of the damage they cause to animals and the environment. Combining sustainability and fashion is a true challenge (Molderez and De Landtsheer 2015 ). 1 This attitude is important since Teresa Presas in her work Interdependence and Partnership: Building Blocks to Sustainable Development ( 2001 ) exposes that a real transition toward sustainable development requires a new way of thinking. It requires the use of a collective learning mechanism for all types of environments and stakeholders, and structured discussions about our vision of what a sustainable society is all about. But a sustainable society is not possible without sustainable individuals (Cavagnaro and Curiel 2012 ). That is, individual capacities seem to be at the heart of this issue. These de fi nitions should lead to a more informed and responsible attitude from consumers. 1 According to Moderez and De Landtsheer ( 2015 ), the Chinese fur is often intentionally misla- beled, so when the customers buy fur, they are unable to trace where it comes from. 50 M. Á . Gardetti
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3.1 The UN Global Compact The UNGC is the result of a world characterized by glaring and unsustainable imbalances and inequities (Kell 2003 ). This is a joint initiative of the United Nations Development Program, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, and the World Labor Organization, in an effort to enable corporate social responsibility development and to foster human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption. The main goal of the UNGC is to help align corporate policies and practices to universally concurred and interna- tionally applicable ethical goals, and it is based on principles that stem from four
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  • Fall '19
  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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