consult the following planting instructions as written by William Cobbett, an early 19thcentury journalist-turned farmer in his book The American Gardener. I ploughed the ground into ridges, the tops of which (for the dwarf sorts) were four feet apart. I then put a good parcel of yard-dung in to the furrows; and ploughed the earth back upon the dung. I then leveled the top of the ridge a little, and drew two drills along upon it at six inches distant from each other. In these I sowed the peas (Cobbett 137).The early pea may be sown in the fall but as Cobbett points out, “care must be taken to guard against mice…when the frost sets in, all is safe till winter breaks up” and may sprout up to
ten or fifteen days earlier than if one were to sow peas in the spring (Cobbett 138). Peas can germinate while the soil is still cool and were historically planted in late fall, but were also among the first crops planted in the spring (Buchanan 72). CULTIVATION of BEANSIn the US, the common dwarf field bean is primarily grown in New York, Michigan and areas west of the Mississippi River. Beans are characteristic of a warm-season annual crop and flourish in a variety of soil types, while the optimal temperature for growth should be between 63 –77° F and need about 120 –130 days of growth without frost (Morris 367). Planting dates vary from early April to early July but can vary due to geographic location and the threat of frost in more Northerly regions. Field bean crops require an added source of phosphorus, potassium and zinc as fertilizer for best growth results (Morris 367). Cobbett points out an alternative planting technique –similar to peas: The bean is difficult to raise here. It does not like dry and hot weather; and it likes moist and stiff land. If attempted to be raised in America, it should be sown in the fall by all means but, still it is useless to sow, unless you guard against mice (Cobbett 95). Chart 2 Illustrates various cultivation parameters for both beans and peas. VegetableSow In Open GroundDistance Between PlantsDays to SproutWeeks to MaturePlantsRowsBeans, bush Early May 3 inches 2 feet 6 to 10 6 to 11 Beans, climbing Mid May 3 feet 4 feet 6 to 10 9 to 14 Peas, climbing Mid March 2 inches 2 to 4 feet 5 to 10 7 to 9 *(Chart compiled with information generated from Tabor‟s Garden Primer) A Brief History of Origins: Migration, Use, and Religious SignificanceLEGUMESIn his 1886 edition of Origin of Cultivated Plants, Alphonse de Candolle first alerted botanists to the archeological record that contains nature‟s records of the geography of plant domestication (Kaplan 273). N.I. Vavilov spent decades researching geographical botany, and by 1926 had created a morphology chart of domesticated papilionaceous legumes. The four main genera of beans are Phaseolus,Vicia, Vigna, andGlycine. Each of these genera is relegated almost entirely to beans from specific geographic areas, listed as follows (Albala 6 and Kaplan 273): Phaseolus- the New World- the Americas. Basic kidney beans, pinto, lima, tepary and navy beans.