In paragraphs 9 12 gould describes how he had

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3. In paragraphs 9-12 Gould describes how he had questioned and then reexamined the scientific methods that Broca used. He concludes that there are some inconsistencies in how the trials were conducted. Gould then asks in paragraph 13, "Who knows what to do with Broca's data" (Gould)?
This statement shows that since the scientific method can be questionable, that the entire experiment and its far-ranging conclusions lack validity and are unreliable. He weaves these two problems together to make the argument that even though Broca's measurements and experiments were conducted with impeccable accuracy, the interpretation and implementation of the results were out of the scope of support.4.Every individual that Gould cites helps to support his claim. Paul Broca and Gustave Le Bon's stories are used to highlight the discrimination in the interpretations of their data from questionable scientific processes. Due to the lack of validity to Broca's argument, he dismisses his interpretations as unsupported and "ill-founded." He incorporates L. Manouvrier section to show that the data can be manipulated in other ways. The data that Broca found can support that women have superior intelligence if calculated and interpreted another way, Manouvrier found. Maria Montessori's sectionserves as a point to where a follower of Broca's findings still disproved them through a different experiment and calculations. She was able to take the same experiment which supported that men were more intelligent to support that Women were. All of the quotations used in this essay back up the idea of female inferiority, for example in Le Bon’s conclusion, “this inferiority is obvious that no one can contest it for a moment” (Gould p.520). Without quotations like these Gould would be unable to refute and counter argue so his essay would become bias and have little to no validity. Therefore, without one, the essay would not cover such a wide scope, and it would decrease the overall impact of his points.5.The footnote may seem to detract from his credibility but looking at it greater in depth it actually adds to Gould's credibility. The reason being that it adds some background to Le Bon, “he was a leading scientist, one of the leading founders of psychology, and best known for a seminal study on

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