O primary election is an election used to select a

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o Primary election is an election used to select a party's candidate for the general election. o Most important states are Iowa and New Hampshire Understand the campaign finance laws in the o US- Federal Corrupt Practices Act (190) Required the reporting of campaign contributions and expenditures Tillman Act (1907) o Specifically prohibited direct contribution from corporations and nationally chartered (interstate) banks to political parties and candidates for federal office Taft Hartley Act(1947) o Outlawed the "closed" shop made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves and required union leaders to take on a non-communist oath FECA(1971) o Created by FEC, Required disclosure of contributions and expenditures, provided limitations on contributions and presidential election expenditures, provide subsidies for presidential candidates Buckley v. Valeo(1976) o The right of individuals to spend their own money on their campaign is constitutionally protected because of free speech; exception: if they are backed by the government they can only spend $50,000 of their own money Citizens United(2010) o Corporations and unions can give unlimited amount of money to independent groups Political Parties Terms o Political parties- organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices o Two-party systems- a political system in which only two parties have a realistic opportunity to compete effectively for control o Electoral realignment- the point in history wen a new party supplants the ruling party, becoming in turn the dominant political force; in the United States , this has tended to occur roughly every 30 years
o Divided government- the condition in American Government wherein the presidency is controlled by on party while the opposing party controls on or both houses of Congress o Party polarization- the division between the two major parties on most policy issues, with members of each party unified around their party's positions with little crossover o Third parties- parties that organize to compete against the two major American parties o Part organized- the formal structure of a political party, including its leadership, election committees, active members ad paid staff o Caucus (political) a normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy or make decisions regarding legislative matters o National convention- a national party political institution that nominates the party's presidential and vice presidential candidates, establishes party rules, and writes and ratifies the party's platform o Platform-a party document written at a national convention, that contains party philosophy, principles, and positions on issues o Soft money-money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations for political activities that is not regulated by federal campaign spending laws; in 2002 federal law prohibited unregulated donations to national party committees o

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