15 jacoby j cesta m axelband j et al can emergency

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15. Jacoby J, Cesta M, Axelband J, et al. Can emergency medicine residents detect acute deep venous thrombosis with a limited, two-site ultrasound examination? J Emerg Med 2007; 32 : 197–200. 16. Magazzini S, Vanni S, Toccafondi S, et al. Duplex ultrasound in the emergency department for the diagnostic management of clinically sus- pected deep vein thrombosis. Acad Emerg Med 2007; 14 : 216–20. 17. Burnside PR, Brown MD, Kline JA. Systematic review of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography for lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis. Acad Emerg Med 2008; 15 : 493–8. 18. Righini M, Paris S, Le Gal G, et al. Clinical relevance of distal deep vein thrombosis: review of literature data. Thromb Haemost 2006; 95 : 56–64. 19. Bernardi E, Camporese G, Buller H, et al. Serial 2-point ultrasonography plus D-dimer vs whole-leg color-coded Doppler ultrasonography for diagnosing suspected symptomatic deep vein thrombosis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008; 300 : 1653–9. 20. Perrier A, Desmarais S, Miron MJ, et al. Non-invasive diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in outpatients. Lancet 1999; 353 : 190–5. 21. Crisp JG, Lovato LM, Jang TB. Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity with portable vascular ultrasonography can accurately detect deep venous thrombosis in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 2010; 56 : 601–10. 190 Diagnostic ultrasound Ultrasound of the deep venous system
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9 Respiratory ultrasound Introduction Over the last five years, research describing the use of ultrasound for respiratory conditions has proliferated, and new and exciting ways to diagnose and manage the dyspneic patient using ultrasound continue to be identified. Thoracic ultrasound is reviewed for a variety of applications throughout this book. The role of thoracic ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumothorax and hemothorax is covered in Chapter 2 , and the safety benefit of ultrasound when performing procedures such as thoracentesis is presented in Chapter 16 . This chapter, therefore, will focus on the role of ultrasound in airway management and the role of thoracic ultrasound in the diagnosis of pulmon- ary edema or extravascular lung water (EVLW). The terminology that has been developed by pioneers in thoracic ultrasound for identifying EVLW and the concepts behind it are described, because they are crucial to the diagnos- tic use of ultrasound for all thoracic applications. The two most basic concepts of thoracic ultrasound – A-lines and B-lines – are described here. There are many other potential applications for thoracic ultrasound, and indeed German, French and Danish physicians routinely use ultrasound to diagnose consolidations, infarctions and inflam- matory thoracic conditions. For more detailed descriptions of these applications and others used in the evaluation of the dyspneic patient, sonographers are encouraged to read Dr. Daniel A. Lichtenstein’s book, General Ultrasound in the Critically Ill [ 1 ]. Thoracic ultrasound is an area of extensive research, and the potential for guiding the management of patients with lung disease is enormous. Specific pediatric applications will
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