Crimes caused by forces external to an individuals

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Crimes caused by forces external to an individual’s will Discussion 1/26/2012 . What is sociology? . External factors that shape what we do . Review material . 2 approaches of criminology . Classical criminology – assume a rational actor . Celerity, certainty, severity of punishments . Positivist criminology – causes of crime is external to the individual
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. Lombroso – external to one’s will – these people cannot help it but to commit crime because it is part of their biology Lecture 1/30/2012 . Durkheim: Original Conceptualization of Anomie . Durkheim established sociology as a discipline in the Universities – Referred to a classical theorist (one of 3 theorists that have given sociology its foundation) . Presented 2 theories of crime: . Functions of crime theory . What crime does in society – crime emerges from society and crime provides something for society . Problem of social order – Solidarity holds society together, but it is problematic . Mechanical solidarity produce mechanical societies . Durkheim had in mind, a tribal society – first, primitive societies . Solidarity is based on resemblance – everybody is kind of the same (think and feel same) . No division of labor – everyone is pretty much doing the same thing – the only division of labor is between male and female . Organic solidarity produce organic societies . More complex – we live in an organic society . There is a division of labor – for Durkheim, makes solidarity in an organic society highly problematic because it leads to a fracture in society due to the fact that everyone is doing something different . Society is like a living body – occupational groups in society are like the organs of a body . Functions of Crime theory plays out in mechanical solidarity – crime reinforces mechanical solidarity . 3 Functions of Crime . Solidarity Function . Collective Conscience is strengthened through solidarity function . you are aware of yourself – self consciousness . Person has a consciousness that he shares in everything that people around him are also sharing . Sense that we are part of something greater than individual – forces of society working through us . Normal standards of conduct in society are reinforced . Reality becomes more black and white – can see clearly what is wrong, therefore know what’s opposite: what is right . If there is no crime, then solidarity function cannot be done – therefore, society starts calling other things crime – Crime in the Community of Saints . Durkheim definition of crime is whatever people say it is . Transformative Function . Problem of how strong collective conscience should be – societies constantly need to change/adapt
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. If people continued to do things the same, then society would be too rigid to adapt – would be restrained in a strict collective conscience and would think of new ways to do things . Society must have weak points so that people want to make changes in society – going against the collective conscience, they are violating this collective conscience, thus they are criminals . Ex. Jesus executed and Ghandi was persecuted and MLK was arrested – treated as criminals because they violated the collective conscience –
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