Structure & Function of Language Notes

Anti category this is the book direct obj walter was

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- anti-category  This is the book [direct obj?] Walter was reading to his friends and former  students on Friday  about . -must find way to place this transitive word syntactically/semantically within the  sentence; find location of constituent -effect may arise because something in structure comes first or it is more likely  assumed to be another option. Semantics= subfield of linguistics/psycholinguistic, very controversial The study of meaning Concepts/categories Distinction between linguistic meaning (denotation) and speaker meaning  (connotation) John believes the world is round John doubts the world is round These are exclusive; Both sentences cannot be thought of as true because they  nullify each other, we know this without have to know John.. ( ( About )   ( half )   ( full ) green one illustrate incontroversially correct- different
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( ( About )   ( half )   ( empty ) ) full/empty are diff values -does not describe same thing, but different meanings? Shouldn’t these two parts  be the meaning of the whole -if a word/phrase has a meaning it must have a denotation -if two words have the same denotation, they must have the same meaning unsatisfying, both can be disproven—Pegasus has meaning/not word neil Armstrong/the 1 st  man on the moon – same reference, don’t mean same  thing.. mantleist view- idea associated with in mind of the speaker, ideas  proved/evoked when come across word view meaning as a mental object – image? Category/concept? Feels too concrete, not abstract enough – dog, image that comes to mind has  specificity that cannot convey just dog in general; many details can vary in the  mental image of kick that do not contribute to the meaning of just kick;  capturing the meaning of abstract concepts, questions Compositionality—meaning of sentence, representation Sense theory of meaning Meaning has 2 parts: denotation/reference (extention- what word can apply  to, in all possible worlds) + sense (intention-abstract part, properties the  words have, set of conditions, defining properties, something must satisfy for  that something to include in the extension of that word; something a  community has come to accept intention (whale is a fish) doesn’t have to be  scientifically correct) o Man on moon/Armstrong,  o I, same sense different denotation depending on who says it Knowing the conditions makes the sentence true in all possible worlds,  irrelevant if it is actually true in the current state of world or not, can be  derived from imaginary world/past world Must understand: o
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  • Spring '10
  • Semantics, Noun phrase, students­ noun phrase, sentence= noun phrase

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