# Placebo effect an improvement that is elicited by the

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Placebo effect : an improvement that is elicited by the expectation or anticipation of there being change. Double-blind : subjects and experimenters are both unaware of what the subject is really getting, and a third-party group that does not directly participate in the study and only analyze the resulting data keeps track of the what is given to the subjects. Independent variable : the variable that you manipulate. Dependent variable : the variable that changes with the independent variable. Statistics: Data/observation: the results you get from an experiment Frequency Distribution: a graph where frequency that each option appears is represented as a bar of specific length. 7

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Measure of Central Tendency: Mean: arithmetic average (most commonly used) Problem: outliers can skew the mean. Median: the midpoint of the data that is organized from lowest to highest. If there is no midpoint, then the two middle points’ arithmetic average is used. Mode: the most frequent occurring data. Normal distribution (bell-curve distribution or a Gaussian Distribution) Skewed distribution ( a distribution where there is a tail that goes towards the left or the right) Measures of Variance Tells how the scores vary. Range: the gap/distance between the lowest and highest score Standard deviation: the deviation from the mean; the average of the absolute difference between each value and the mean. Normal Distribution: Normal curve: 68% of the data falls into one standard deviation away from the mean, 95% of the data falls into two standard deviations away from the mean, 97.5% of the data falls into three standard deviations away from the mean. You can do better in one class than another class even if you score the same on the test. Jan. 20, 2012 Statistical significance: A significance test compares a sample mean with the population mean and asks what the odds of getting that sample mean is. A difference is more likely to be found as being statistically significant if: The difference is reliable: likely to get the same result if the experiment is repeated (the sample is representative of the population; there is low variability; the sample size is large). 8
If the difference is large (if the odds of the sample mean occurring is less than 5% of the time, remember that it follows a normal distribution, so the sample mean is more than 2 or 3 standard deviations away from the population mean). Statistical significance does not mean practical significance. Neurons: Brain cells/nerve cells (see slides for picture): Cell body (soma) Dendrites Axon Terminal branches Myelin Sheath Action Potential Cell membrane is semi-permeable, there are channels which allow ions (charged particles) to come in/out of the cell.

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