• John Muir (nationalists), • Arboriculturists believed it was necessary to have a set of land available in order to study the animals and the lands. • Economists believed that if land had more value to be used in a utilitarian way, there would be better ways other than making the land a national park. Utilitarian conservation is based on science, that is, the feeling or believe that we’re screwing up the environment. • Definition: “Stressing the importance of utility over beauty” • Based on Enlightenment, which had begun in the early 1680s/late 1600s and spread across the Atlantic to the United States in the 1700s The Age of Reason. Human beings should have a lot of freedom to express and live happily. • Enlightenment philosophers and scientists believed everything could be explained through science, which was considered the great guitein for those who believed in Enlightenment philosophy.
The Origins of Utilitarian Conservation – Lecture 10 18:05 • Scientific Experimentation and Research -> everything can be explained, even the universe… Yes, THE UNIVERSE! Woooah, bold statement? • Supporters consisted of Isaac Newton and Franklin. o Isaac Newton: studied physics, calculus, etc. He had codified the information. o Benjamin Franklin: considered as someone who assisted the government during the revolution, but at the same time experimented with the kite to study the flow of electricity. Mid-1800s, the Industrial Revolution was in effect. At the same time, industrial, global, world population was all-changing rapidly. • World Population (doubling every five years): o Up to 1650: doubled every 1,000 years o 1650: 500 million; In 1850, 1 billion o One year ago: 6,975,880,859 o Currently: 7 billion and counting. o Reasons for growth: food, general increase of good health. • In one of the Plants, western mining focused on copper, silver, gold, etc. Butte, Montana held of the largest pit mines. The Frontier was vanishing. Trains would have had to stop and blow steam at the buffalo’s. Thereby, buffalo’s were a nuisance and thus a mass amount were killed/extinct/EXTERMINATED. Native Americans went all the way across the Western Meridian, were put in the way, and sent to reservations (Oklahoma) • Scientists started to call attention to these problems. George Perkins Marsh (1801-1882). Born in Vermont, lawyer-trained scientist and enlightenment thinker. Studied with his father, who taught him about environmentalism. • Marsh entered politics, became US. Congressman in the 1840s and was appointed American minister of Turkey in 1850. Travelling through the middle east and Mediterranean while a minister led him to become the Fishery commissioner of Vermont in 1857, experimenting and concluded due to ovelrogging, mining activities, and overgrazing, pollution declined fish.
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