10CV56 Department Of Civil Engineering, SJBIT Page 14 Kms, and constitutes about 2% of total road networks of India and carry 40% of total traffic. State highways: Theyare the arterial roads of a state, connecting up with the national highways of adjacent states, district head quarters and important cities within the state They also serve as main arteries to and from district roads. Total length of all SH in the country is 1, 37,119 Kms. Major district roads:Important roads with in a district serving areas of production and markets, connecting those with each other or with the major highways. India has a total of 4, 70,000 Kms of MDR. Other district roads: Roadsserving rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to market centers or other important roads like MDR or SH. Village roads: Theyare roads connecting villages or group of villages with each other or to the nearest road of a higher category like ODR or MDR. India has 26, 50,000 Kms of ODR+VR out of the total 33, 15,231 Kms of all type of roads. Roads classification criteria Apart from the classification given by the different plans, roads were also classified based on some other criteria. They are given in detail below. Based on usage This classification is based on whether the roads can be used during different seasons of the year. All-weather roads: Those roads which are negotiable during all weathers, except at major river crossings where interruption of traffic is permissible up to a certain extent are called all weather roads. Fair-weather roads: Roads which are negotiable only during fair weather are called fair weather roads. Based on carriage way
Transportation Engineering- I 10CV56 Department Of Civil Engineering, SJBIT Page 15 This classification is based on the type of the carriage way or the road pavement. Paved roads with hard surface: If they are provided with a hard pavement course such roads are called paved roads. (Eg: stones, Water bound macadam (WBM), bituminous macadam (BM), concrete roads) Unpaved roads: Roads which are not provided with a hard course of atleast a WBM layer they are called unpaved roads. Thus earth and gravel roads come under this category. Urban roads The urban roads are classified as follows: 1.Arterial roads 2.Sub arterial roads 3.collector streets 4.local streets 5.Briefly explain about planning survey in India. (Dec 2014, June/July 2015) Master plan is referred to as road development plan of a city; district or a street or for whole country. It is an ideal plan showing full development of the area at some future date. It serves as the guide for the plan to improve some of the existing roads and to plan the network of new roads. It helps in controlling the industrial, commercial and agricultural and habitat growth in a systematic way of that area. It gives a perceptive picture of a fully developed area in a plan and scientific way.