ISS_225_Lec_2_Scientific_Method

Is it the role of government to guarantee equality 6

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Is it the role of government to guarantee equality? 6
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Scientific Method Empirical approach would ask questions like: How do we define equality/inequality? (Working definition – when do we know it exists?) How do we measure inequality? (operationalization of the concept – income, opportunity, influence…) What are the causes and consequences of inequality (the correlates of inequality – race, residence, age, gender…)? C. Inductive and Deductive Theory Theory and research are inextricably inter-related. Either without the other would tend to be meaningless and each contributes to the development of the other aspect. Without theory, the data and findings of any research endeavor could not be interpreted meaningfully. Without research, theories and their sub-propositions could not be tested and refined. Theory and research are related in two ways: Francis Bacon argued that a sufficiently large number of observations would lead to theories accounting for relationships observed ( Inductive reasoning ) Observe nature and then come up with the explanation (theory). Rene Descartes argued that we could only account for observed phenomena on the basis of clear and distinct ideas ( Deductive reasoning ). Come up with an explanation (theory) and then observe nature to see if it is true. V. Approaches to Social Science Research A. Scientific Research Design (experimentation) [see the textbook, page 26] Ideal Design includes: The comparison of specific changes in two or more carefully selected groups. An experiment is a scientific test controlled by the researcher to observe effects of a specific program or treatment. Experimental group is the group that will participate in the program or undergo the treatment under study. Control group is a group, identical to the experimental group that does not undergo treatment and is used for comparison. Null hypothesis a statement that the program or treatment has no effect. Problems with experimentation: 7
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Scientific Method Subject knows it is an experiment. Representiveness of experimental group No one will want to be in the control group. Morality issue of providing some with services and others not Costs and time of experiment B. Survey Research (see textbook, p. 28) Public opinion polling is most associated with George Gallup. Polls rely on a sample of the population to measure public opinion. The key to accuracy is random sampling (everyone has an equal chance of being selected). The size of the sample is not as important as the randomness of the sample. Sampling error measures the risk that the sample is different from the population. Proper techniques will keep your results within a given margin of error. (Usually plus or minus three percent) Example of sampling error: Literary Digest predicted Alf Landon would beat Roosevelt in 1936 based on straw polls which got their sample from telephone directories and motor vehicle records.
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