In what ways does the Kenya Constitution promote national Unity? It provides the equality of all Kenyans. Kenyans are bound by one constitution, making it a unifying factor. It guarantees equal opportunities for all Kenyans. It protects individuals against any form of discrimination as provided for in the Bill of Rights. It provides for a unitary government under one president. Explain the factors that undermine national unity in Kenya. Religious conflicts, caused by interdenominational, denominational, sectarian and inter- religious differences, based on doctrinal differences and the struggle for leadership. This has led to civil wars in such places as Sudan and Northern Ireland. Ethnicity i.e. the favouring of people from one‟s own ethnic group at the expense of others. Racism and intolerance, whereby citizens choose not to accommodate others or opposing views. Corruption i.e. giving and receiving bribes and abuse of office. Divisive politics, whereby parties tend to divide people into camps based on party affiliation, even over matters of national interest. Economic inequality whereby the wealthy class own a large part of agricultural and industrial business and hold key posts in the civil service, the military, educational institutions and the industries as others remain below the poverty line, victimised by unemployment, unequal income distribution, lack of land and adverse climatic conditions. Cultural and traditional conflicts, whereby some alien practices may conflict with traditional African ones e.g. style of dressing and the issue of equality between men and women. Poverty, which leads to antisocial acts such as theft and violence. Political ideologies i.e. different political views, leading to use of physical or verbal violence. Nepotism i.e. favouring one‟s relatives. CONFLICT What is conflict? Conflict could be defined as: Disagreement between people, based on opposing views or interests. Armed struggle between people or soldiers. Identify the levels of conflict. Conflicts range from ordinary family level to national and international levels. These are:
Individual versus individual. Group versus group. Individual versus state. Group versus state. State versus state. Identify the aspects of conflict. There are three main aspects of conflict, namely: Social aspects, i.e. disputes involving members of a family, clan or tribe, religious groups and educational institutions. Political aspects i.e. disputes between political parties. Economic aspects i.e. disputes between employers and employees. Explain the factors that led to conflict in Kenya after independence. After Kenya got her independence, conflicts arose from economic-related factors, such as: Market economy, which might contribute to conflict between trading and industrial groups, especially under the free market policy. Contractual conflict, mostly caused by contracted companies who fail to complete work to the standards agreed upon, or contracted agents who fail to pay for work or service rendered.
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