The lcst of pncs nanoparticles hydrogel nanoparticles

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the LCST of PNCS nanoparticles, hydrogel nanoparticles are in swelling form and therefore some parts of spaces between fi bres are blocking and the passage of air Fig. 34 WVT rates of modi fi ed and control cotton fabric [RH 65 %, 25 °C (<LCST) and 40 °C (>LCST)] (Bashari et al. 2015 ) 48 N. Gokarneshan et al.
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through the fabric is reduced. But since the hydrogel is in nanoparticle form and amount of this surface modifying system on fabric is not more than 8 % (owf), reduction in amount of air permeability through the modi fi ed fabrics in comparison with control fabric is not so marked. 11.10 In fl uence of Nanohydrogel Finishing on Fabric Vertical Wicking Figure 36 depicts the vertical wicking behaviour of modi fi ed and control cotton fabrics. The following factors in fl uence capillary and the liquid rises in the length of capillary tubes (a) Contact angle ( θ ) (b) Surface tension ( ρ ) (c) Diameter of the capillary tube (R). Hydrophilic textiles more readily absorb water than hydrophobic textiles. More surface area is wetted with the increase in contact angle when the hydrophilicity of fabric is increased. Hence, the wetting time in modi fi ed cotton fabric with hydrogel Fig. 35 Air permeability of modi fi ed and control cotton fabric [RH 65 %, 30 °C] (Bashari et al. 2015 ) Fig. 36 Vertical wicking of modi fi ed and control cotton fabric [RH 65 %, 30 °C] (Bashari et al. 2015 ) Advances in Nanotextile Finishes An Approach Towards Sustainability 49
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systems are less than in control fabric due to the hydrophilic nature of hydrogel on the fabric surface. In terms of surface tension s role on fabric wicking, considering that potassium permanganate solution was used in all tests, the surface tension is found similar for both modi fi ed and control fabrics. The diameter of capillary tubes is another factor that affects the vertical wicking of fabric. The swelling of the hydrogel system present on the fabric surface can lead to changes in the diameter of the capillary-like tubes (open pores between the fi bres) in the fabric (Bashari et al. 2015 ). The fl uid speed increases with decreasing the diameter of the capillary tube. As the fabric with a plain weave is used in this study, the structure of fabric is relatively open; closing of pores between the fi bres can lead to a signi fi cant reduction in the wicking of the fabric. The wicking of modi fi ed smart fabric is increased as shown in Fig. 36 . Thus, due to nanogel swelling, the increase in hydrophilicity of fabric surface and decrease in diameter of open pores of fabric structure result in increase in wicking parameter. 11.11 Assessment of Washing Fastness of Modi fi ed Fabrics The three modi fi ed fabrics have been washed 5 times so as to check the amount of the nanogel fi nishing system that remains on fabric, as per stipulated conditions (Fig. 37 ). After fi ve washing process, about 75 80 % of the initial hydrogel system has been remained on the fabric surface. This represents the acceptable washing fastness of smart cotton fabric.
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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