After several years of stalemate and failed peace negotiation, Japan again invaded Korea in 1597, but were defeated by Korean and Chinese forces in 1598. Ming’s power gradually declined since, until its demise to the Jurchen who establishes the Qing. Admiral Yi Sunsin played a large role in defeating the Japanese forces.Where: Korean MainlandsWhen: 1592Significance: Exposed grave problems in the Choson policy, but also provided an opportunity for sharpening their national identity and reassessing their civilizational standing in the northeastAsian region.Shows Choson’s ignorance of surrounding countries15) Neo-Confucianism (성리학)Who: Zhu Xi Where: From the Song dynasty ChinaWhat: Applied the teachings and philosophy of Confucianism to address contemporary problems. Gained popularity in Korea during the Choson dynasty and greatly influenced Chosonpolitics, economics, society, and culture. The five relationships and filial piety were two of the most important concepts/teachings of Neo-Confucianism, Emphasized the reverence among each class was key. “Investigation of things” and self-cultivation. Man’s true nature is fundamentally good. Commentaries of Four Books: Analects, Great Learning, Mean, Mencius. Renewed emphasis on moral foundations of politics, society, and culture. Proper conduct of ritual as central to bringing society into harmony with cosmosWhen: 1130-1200Significance: Slowed down korean globalization.Teawongun16) Genre Painting(풍속도)Who:Kim Hongdo, Sin Yunbok (influenced by Kim Hongdo)What: Major art form of the late Choson dynasty. Only records of chungin, commoners, and low-born people. Depicted natural daily life and commoners and even low-born people, unlike the paintings from previous eras (e.g. sports of ordinary people, travels of people, and etc.)# Example- Kim Hongdo’s ‘Wrestling’Significance: Shows daily lives of ordinary people in Choson.Background 로추가하면좋을것! Most artists of Genre Paintings came from Secondary Status backgrounds in the Dynasty(So ol 서얼) who often suffered from various restrictions of their status which explains why they rarely featured themselves and rather focused on the low-borns and the commoners in their works.(서얼의차별을느낄수있는Example - The tale of Hong Kil-Dong(홍길동전)))17) P’ansori (판소리)What:a genre of opera featuring one singer, emerged in the eighteenth century, lyrics were adapted from earlier Korean vernacular novels, Sin Chae-hyo was a well known p'ansori author/composer (Compiled six pansori texts). Performed in open venues.