Table 5. Naming Binary Acids2) Naming OxyacidsOxyacids are acids that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and another element. When naming oxyacids:Add -ic to the stem of the element if the anion ends in -ateAdd -ous to the stem of the element is the anion ends in -iteFor example, the stem of the element nitrogen is nitr:nitrate ion (NO3−) nitric acid (HNO3)nitrite ion (NO2−) nitrous acid (HNO2)In cases where an element forms more than two oxyacids, the prefixes per- (for the largest6Adapted from1. Van Koppen, P. A. M. General Chemistry Laboratory Manual Second Edition. McGraw-Hill: New York,2007, 15-26.2. Chang, R. Chemistry Tenth Edition. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2010, 59-70.
number of oxygen atoms in the oxyacid) and hypo- (for the smallest number of oxygen) areused, just as for the oxyanions. Table 6 below shows some examples for naming oxyacids.3) Naming Organic AcidsThe stems for the common organic acids are nonsystematic and must be memorized. The same relation as for oxoacids holds between the names of the ion and the acid. For example, acetate ion (CH3COO−) acetic acid (CH3COOH)Bases:A base can be described as a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH−) when dissolved in water.To name the base, first name the element of the cation, then follow it with hydroxide to identify the OH− anion. Some examples:Base Cation Anion Name of baseNaOH Na+OH−sodium hydroxideKOH K+OH−potassium hydroxideBa(OH)2Ba2+OH−barium hydroxide4) Naming HydratesHydrates are compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them. For example, in its normal state lithum chloride has one water molecule associated with it. The systematic name for this compound is lithium chloride monohydrate, and its formula is written asLiCl • H2O. To name hydrate compounds, first name the ionic compound (lithium chloride) thenname the specific number of water molecules attached using the Greek prefixes shown in Table 4. Below are some common examples for naming hydrates.Hydrates Ionic compound Water molecules Name of HydrateBaCl2• 2H2O barium chloride dihydrate barium dihydrateMgSO4•7H2O magnesium sulfate heptahydrate magnesium sulfate heptahyrateProcedure:7Adapted from1. Van Koppen, P. A. M. General Chemistry Laboratory Manual Second Edition. McGraw-Hill: New York,2007, 15-26.2. Chang, R. Chemistry Tenth Edition. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2010, 59-70.
Naming Inorganic compounds:1. Using what you have learned about naming inorganic compounds, work in teams to complete the nomenclature worksheet.2. Be sure to complete all the examples in the worksheet.Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Dry Lab: Experiment 3Name __________________________________ Section________________________________Date ______________________________________This worksheet is to be completed in lab.1.Ionic CompoundsWrite the symbol and charge of the cation, the symbol and charge of the anion, and the chemical formula for each of the following compounds.compoundcationanionChemical formulalithium fluoridepotassium oxidemagnesium iodidecalcium nitridebarium sulfidealuminum oxideTransition metal compoundsCompoundcationanionChemical formulalead (IV) oxidechromium (III) oxide8Adapted from1. Van Koppen, P. A. M. General Chemistry Laboratory Manual Second Edition.
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