• Movement led by Martin, 26 years old from Atlanta • Minister • At first didn’t want involvement, but he did • Some whites responded to boycott with violence, homes bombed • In December 1956, MLK, JR and other blacks got on bus and proudly sat up front in “white section” • Showed on TV • Led to other bus boycotts all over US • Jim Crow Laws still existed in South in 1950s Central High School • 1957 • Governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, refused to integrate school • September 1957, called in Arkansas National Guard to prevent 9 black students attending Central High, an all white High School • Ike forced to take action • Sent in Federal paratroopers to help 9 black students • Mobs formed and tried to prevent the black students from attending Central High • Paratroopers patrolled CH the rest of the year assigned to specific students • Little Rock shut down all public high schools in 1958 rather than to desegregate them Southern Christian Leadership Conference • SCLC created 1957 • By MLK Jr and other ministers • King 1 st President of SCLC • Aim was to mobilize vast power of black churches on behalf of Civil Rights • Coordinate local black protest movements that emerged to challenge racial bias in South • Non-Violence Civil Rights Act, 1957 • 1 st Civil Rights Act passed since Reconstruction • set-up permanent Civil Rights Committee to investigate violations of Civil Rights • authorized Federal injunctions to protect voting rights • still long way to go for African-Americans, especially in the South, to receive Civil Rights FDR and the New Deal April 3, 2006 PWA • Public Works Administration • Set up for industrial recovery & unemployment relief o 2 of the 3 R’s • PWA created projects on Federal buildings, highways, dams, bridges, and schools • Basically gave people jobs and thus money to spend • PWA responsible for building the Golden Gate Bridge and the 100 mile roadway linking Florida to Key West • PWA’s goal? o Long term recovery NRA • National Recovery Administration • 2 nd part of NIRA • Combined immediate relief, with long term range recovery and reform • Designed to assist industry, labor and unemployed • Wanted to stabilize businesses with codes of fair competitive practices to generate more purchasing power by providing jobs and defining labor standards and raising wages • Committee of management, labor and government officials drew up fair practice codes for each industry • NRA created 40 hr work week • A minimum weekly wage of $13 in North and $12 in the South
• This doubled some people’s wages • Child labor (under 16) also banned • Supreme court struck it down in 1935 • But it did set up working conditions we have today Glass Steagall Banking Reform Act • June 16, 1933 • Established the FDIC or Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation • FDIC guaranteed all bank deposits up to $5,000.00 • If bank should fail, small depositors could recover $ from Congress • Restored people’s faith in banks and government
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