oExamples for frequently used humectants includeglycerin and sorbitol.◾Surfactantsare used in mouthwash formulations to solubilize the flavoring oils and stabilize the products. They can provide foaming action on use, with this action they contribute to the cleansing effect of the product.oExamples include nonionic surfactants, such as poloxamers(polyoxyethylenated polyoxypropylene nonionic block polymers) and polysorbates, such as polysorbate 80, as well as anionic components, such as sodium methyl cocoyl taurateand sodium lauryl sulfate.◾Astringentscan serve as temporary deodorizers that mask bad breath.oExamples include zinc chloride, ethanol, and witch hazel.◾Preservatives:Although alcohol has an antibacterial activity, its antibacterial profile may not cover all microorganisms that frequently contaminate such formulations. Mouthwashes are basically water/humectantssystems, which is a perfect environment for microbial growth. Therefore, most formulations contain additional preservatives as well.oExamples include ethanol; benzoates, such as benzoic acidand sodium benzoate; and parabens.◾Flavoring Agents: As with toothpastes, taste has a key importance from a consumer perspective. It also contributes to the refreshing effectof the product and provides a pleasant note over the breath aroma. Some flavors may also have antibacterial action.oExamples for ingredients include mint, menthol, peppermint oil, eucalyptol, methyl salicylate, thymol, and bubble gum. Many flavors listed under toothpaste formulations could also be takenas examples for mouthwash formulations.◾Sweetenersare also usually added to adjust the taste of the formulations.◾Colorantsare also an important part of mouthwashes. Only a tiny amount of water-soluble dyes are added.Colors may vary from blue to green to purple or can also be yellow and red.Mouthwash IngredientsActiveFor therapeutic claims, various active ingredients can be incorporated into mouthwashes. The major types are the same as those discussed under toothpastes, including antibacterial, anticavity, antihypersensitivity, antiplaque, antitartar, and whitening ingredients. The only condition is that they must be water-soluble.Examples for the main functional ingredients are summarized as follows:◾Anticaries Agents: sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and sodium monofluorophosphate◾Antihypersensitivity Agents: potassium nitrate and strontium chloride6
COSMETIC LEC FINALS◾Antiplaque/Antigingivitis Agents: Chlorhexidine (which is a very effective agent to reduce plaque formation and gingivitis; its disadvantages include staining of the teeth, taste modification, and increased calculus formulation); essential oils; cetylpyridinium chloride (its disadvantage is that anionic surfactants inactivate it, so it is usually not recommended to use after brushing); and triclosan◾Antitartar Agents: Pyrophosphates, PVM/MA◾Whitening Agents: Non-bleaching agents, such as SHMP, and bleaching agents, such as peroxides.