ii Enzyme deactivation An enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter iii

Ii enzyme deactivation an enzyme destroys the

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ii. Enzyme deactivation: An enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter. iii. Autoreceptors: signal the presynaptic neuron to stop the releasing the neurotransmitter. I. Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior a. Drugs and toxins can alter neurotransmitter action. i. Agonists: enhance the actions of neurotransmitters ii. Antagonists: inhibit the actions of neurotransmitters b. Researchers often inject agonists or antagonists into animals’ brains to assess how neurotransmitters affect behavior. II. What Are the Basic Brain Structures and Their Functions? A. Scientists Can Now Watch the Working Brain a. Modern imaging techniques have greatly advanced our understanding of the human brain. i. Psychophysiological assessment 1. Polygraphs ii. Electrophysiology iii. Brain imaging iv. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation B. The Brain Stem Houses the Basic Programs of Survival a. The Spinal cord: coordination of reflexes; carries sensory information to the brain and motor signals away from the brain i. Gray matter: dominated by neurons’ cell bodies ii. White matter: consists mostly of axons and the fatty myelin sheaths that surround them b. Brain Stem: An extension of the spinal cord; it houses structures that control functions associated with survival, such as heart rate, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm. i. The brain stem 1. Medulla oblongata 2. Pons 3. Midbrain 4. Reticular formation C. The Cerebellum Is Essential for Movement a. Cerebellum: A large, convoluted protuberance at the
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back of the brain stem; it is essential for coordinated movement and balance. i. Damage to the little nodes at the very bottom causes head tilt, balance problems, and a loss of smooth compensation of eye position for head movement ii. Damage to the ridge that runs up the back of the cerebellum affects walking iii. Damage to the bulging lobes on either side causes a loss of limb coordination, making it impossible to perform tasks such as reaching smoothly to pick up a pen. b. The cerebellum’s most obvious role is in motor learning and motor memory. i. It seems to be “trained” by the rest of the nervous system and operates independently and unconsciously. D. Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors a. The forebrain consists of the two cerebral hemispheres, right and left. i. The most noticeable feature of the forebrain is the convoluted surface of the cerebral cortex. b. Below the cerebral cortex are the subcortical regions, which are so named because they lie under the cortex i. Subcortical structures that are important for understanding psychological functions include the hypothalamus, the thalamus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the basal ganglia. 1. Some of these structures belong to the limbic system. E. The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity a. Cerebral cortex: The outer layer of brain tissue, which forms the convoluted surface of the brain; the site of all thoughts, perceptions and complex behaviors.
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  • Spring '08
  • Leslie
  • Psychology, i., researcher

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