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Ogburn used cultural lag= the fact that cultural elements change at different rates, which may disrupt a cultural system.Cultural changes are set in motion in three ways (triggers): 1.Invention= the process of creating new cultural elements. 2.Discovery= recognizing and understanding something not fully understood before. 3.Diffusion= the spread of cultural traits form one society to another. Ethnocentrism= the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture. The alternative approach to ethnocentrism is cultural relativism= the practice of judging a culture by its own standards. Global connections are increasing: 1.The global economy: the flow of goods.2.Global communication: the flow of information.3.Global migration: the flow of people.Ulf Hannerz named the flexible, global character of the richer countries cosmopolitan character= a personal ability to make one’s way into other cultures, through listening, looking, intuiting and reflecting. Downloaded by Jin .Y ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|4182995
Pagina 17van 79Cultural hybridization= the ways in which parts of one culture language, practices, symbols) get recombined with the cultures of another. Three important limitations to the global culture thesis: 1.The flow of goods, information and people has been uneven throughout the world. 2.The global culture thesis assumes that people everywhere are able to afford various new goods and services. 3.We should not conclude that people everywhere attach the same meaning to cultural traits. Glocalisation = the ways in which global phenomena are responded to differently in local cultures. Understanding culture. Anthropological approach: üFunctionalists view = core values anchor a cultural system’s way of life.üCultures are strategies to meet human needs. üClose to: Idealism= the assertion that ideas (rather than the system of material production) are the basis of human reality. üMurdock discussed cultural universals=traits that are part of every known culture. üCritical comment: this approach downplays the extent to which societies change and it overlooks the range of cultural diversity. Critical theory tradition = Adorno’s critique of the standardization of culture following theemergence of the culture industry, making people passive and uncritical. Hegemony = Gramsci’sidea that the means by which a ruling/dominant group wins over a subordinate group through ideas. So: culture as a mechanism for accepting existing social order. From culture to cultural studies. Cultural studiesargues that tradition highlights the way in which working-class groups both created their own cultures and resisted other (dominant) ones. Cultures were active, and there was a worry that mass culture was swamping this long-time active nature. So: Cultural studiesfocus on people’s lived ideas how they turn into everyday culture.