Enterococcaceae representatives Enterococcus Xiikt bacteria The benefits of

Enterococcaceae representatives enterococcus xiikt

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Enterococcaceae representatives Enterococcus-Xiikt bacteria The benefits of ionophores, namely lasalocid, monensin, narasin and saHnomycin, were reported for an Enterococcus-Y\kQ pathogen of rainbow trout in Australia. Following a comparison of 40 isolates, it was noted that the MIC of the ionophores was markedly less than erythromycin (0.1-0.8 |ig/ml). Thus, the MIC for lasalocid, monensin, narasin and saHnomycin were 0.8 |ig/ml, 0.4-1.5 |ig/ml, 0.2-04 |ig/ml and 0.4-0.8 |ig/ml, respectively. Perhaps, there are future opportunities for the use of some of these compounds in aquaculture. Streptococcaceae representatives Lactococcus garvieae (and the streptococci) Both Sir. difficilis and Str. shiloi (=Str. iniae) revealed identical antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, with susceptibility to ampicillin, cefuroxime, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, methicilHn, mezlocilHn, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, potentiated sulphonamide, tetracycline and vancomycin, but resistance to amikacin, colistin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid. Erythromycin, dosed at 25 mg/kg body weight of fish/day for 4 to 7 days, controlled streptococci- cosis in yellowtail (Kitao, 1982b), and worked better than oxytetracycline or ampi- cilHn (Shiomitsu et ai, 1980). Doxycycline, at 20 mg/kg body weight offish/day for an unspecified duration (Nakamura, 1982), and josamycin, dosed at 30 mg/kg body weight of fish/day for 3 days (or dosed at 20 mg/kg body weight of fish/day for 5 days) (Kusuda and Takemaru, 1987; Takemaru and Kusuda, 1988) have also been advocated. It is of particular interest that a novel fisheries therapeutant, namely sodium nifurstyrenate dosed at 50 mg/kg body weight of fish/day for 3-5 days (Kashiwagi et ai, 1977a, b), has found use for streptococcicosis. This drug appears to be particularly effective, and should not have problems with plasmid-mediated resistance. However, resistance to erythromycin, lincomycin and oxytetracycline has been reported among Japanese isolates of Lactococcus garvieae, with the problem recognised for well over a decade (Kawanishi et al, 2005).
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Control 387 Streptococcus iniae Success has been reported with the fluoroquinolone compound, enrofloxacin, dosed at 5 or 10 mg/kg body weight offish/day for 10 days (Stoffregen et al, 1996). Mortalities declined rapidly upon instigating treatment, such that by the end of treatment a total of 11% and 17% of the treated fish has died compared with 55% and 40% of the untreated controls, respectively. Also, laboratory studies have indicated the vale of oxytetracycline (Darwish et ai, 2002) and amoxycilHn (Darwish and Ismaiel, 2003) for the control of infection in blue tilapia and sunshine bass, respectively. Experi- mental evidence has pointed to the efficacy of using amoxycillin for controlling Sir. iniae infection, especially when dosed at 80 mg/kg of fish/day for 12 days when mortalities dropped from 96% in the controls to 6% in the treated blue tilapia (Darwish and Hobbs, 2005). Moreover, the treated survivors did not carry the pathogen.
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