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On the other hand, there is still this strong push for colonialism, as seen in Ferry’s address to the French National Assembly ○Ferry still echoes the sentiments of the “civilizing mission” that Europeans had towards less civilized parts of the world, and casts it as a humanitarian mission that has to be fulfilled ○Ferry also uses economic arguments, saying that colonialism has to happen in order to secure trade routes, and that France had to continue acquiring colonies in order to keep up ○We can see the same sentiment in Kipling’s “white man’s burden” poem, where he exhorts Europeans to civilize other parts of the world ○Europeans still see themselves as having the best civilization and culture in the world, and are duty bound to spread it ●The latest change is seen in the postwar period ○The decolonization movement and the beginning of mass migration into Europe means that Europeans are more likely to see people from other parts of the world as being their equals Prompt 5 Until quite recently, many historians have written the history of Europe from 1492 to 1992 as an era of progress and emancipation on all fronts. To what extent are these valid or invalid descriptions of the experiences of "others" both within and outside of European society? Define the notion of "progress," and make an argument about whether it is still a viable organizing concept in the study of European history? ●The notion of “progress” could be defined as the ability of previously marginalized and excluded groups in society to participate fully in European life ○The state of women has improved very slowly, but over time it has gotten immeasurably since 1492 ■Women were initially barred from participating in public life, and, particularly in the 15-16th century, could be accused of witchcraft ■Even when the French revolution occurred, it called for suffrage and universal rights, but women were largely excluded, even though things like the Declaration of Rights for Women were published ■The rise of capitalism and the industrial revolution sometimes forced women and children to work for the first time
■However, women gained the right to vote in the postwar period in the 20th century ○The state of the lower classes of society and their voice in government has also improved over time ■In an absolutist monarchy such as France, there was no representation of the voices of the lower classes whatsoever ■The third estate did not have enough votes to override the decisions of the other two ■The French revolution tried to aspire to a more egalitarian conception of rights and universal suffrage ■The idea of Social Darwinism, that people at the bottom rung deserved their fate, also had a huge pull and hurt many people who were poor ■Napoleon introduced the idea of meritocracy into the government of France ■The communist manifesto, in intent at least, tried to put power in the hands of the proletariat ■