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Laws of Burgos (1512): Conversion & RegulationBartolome de las casas1502 to hispanola then CubaHad EncomiendaColumbus Editor1514 give up encomienda1522 dominican friarProtector of the IndiansProtect indigenous rightsNeed Freedom for conversion1542 New Laws1550 Debate at Valladolid1552 A Breif Account of the Destruction of the IndiesRights of Man? Right of Conquest?Curious goodsTobacco, Cacao, Maize, Tomatoes, Potatoes, CochinealParrots & PetsSlow IntegrationPerhaps syphilisChocolateForm of Currency & Ceremonial Beverage
The New World & The Old18:24Not Overly Sweet: Chilies & Floral1590 Drink in SpainConsume in same waySlow ChangeGolden AgeBullion ImportedAztecs & Incas point to riches1545 Find Potosi1503-1660: 16M kg of silverQuinta RealSocial OpportunitiesPlace to Rise [The New World]Return to WealthSpanish Economic BoomMore Money, More DemandUrban Expansion: Sevilla 1500 60,000 1588 150,000Price RiseMore $ & More Demand = InflationHit Population RiseWheat Rise 44%, Mutton 41%, Wine 64% Wages 30%Rents: Land rise 86%, House 80%Fall Standard of LivingPoverty rise: Valencia 1568-75 wages cover 1/3 expenses
The Last Days: The Road to Reformation18:24
Here I stand: Martin Luther and the ReformationConversions1505 1st Conversion1521 2nd Conversion2nd Turns the world upside downLuther’s ReformationLuther’s BackgroundHis IdeasPath to Break with ChurchImplicationsYoung LutherMiddle Class FamilyLaw School150 Joins Augustine Eremitesstrict religious orderMonks MatterReligious Orders Centers of ReformWant Regular VisitationsAway from Noble ControlAnticlericalism: Fight for ReformForefront of ChangeThe Good MonkLiked ProfessionDug into Theology
Here I stand: Martin Luther and the Reformation1507 took orders1510 to Rome1511 to WittenburgMartin’s WittenburgFredrick the Wise of SaxonyPatron: Durer, Cranach, LutherFounded University (1502)Humanist CenterPrincely ReformerLuther’s GermaniesHRE: No CentralizationSemi-Indepndent StatesPower Stems from EmpireInner Centralization & expansionBig Powers: Saxony, Brandenburg, BavariaLuther’s ConcrnsHumanist TendenciesWant to get at baseWanted to see the base/roots of problemsDarker View of ManHated Aristotle & ScholasticismSt. AugustineBishop of Hippo, 395 CE
Here I stand: Martin Luther and the ReformationCollapse of RomeFall Marks All MenEscape sin through gods graceSense of Predestination“Praying did nothing”God Center in ChaosHe is the one who can save youOther VoicesCardinal CajetanHuldrych ZwingliMany of same ideas as Luther in swedenMany worried about soulsSalvation?Body & spirit “turned in on themselves”Struggle with doubtsAccept HelplessnessOnly god can know