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derivative, solvent extracted Sample wet digested with acid and chelated with 2,3-butanedion dioxide and complex preconcentrated at hanging mercury drop electrode Direct injection Whole Sample diluted with a blood homogenizer Sample wet digested with acid and chelated with 2,3-butanedion dioxine and complex preconcentrated at hanging mercury drop electrode Sample acid digested, complexed with thiocyanate and N-phenylcinnamo-hydroxamic acid and ex-tracted into ethyl acetate Serum Direct injection GF-AAS with Zeeman back-ground correction GF-AAS with Zeeman back-ground correction GF-AAS with Zeeman back-ground correction DPCSV GF-AAS with Zeeman back-ground correction GF-AAS with D2 background correction DPCSV Colorimetric GF-AA with Zeeman back-ground correction 0.3 µg/L 2.4 µg/L 0.1 µg/L 0.2 µg/L 0.1 µg/L 2 µg/L 0.8 µg/L 0.15 mg/L 0.02 µg/L 101% at Bouman et al. 40µg/L 1986 107.6% at Kimberly et al. 50 µg/L 1987 No data Alexandersson 1988; Ichikawa et al. 1985 No data Heinrick and Angerer 1984 No data Sunderman et al. 1989 No data Heinrick and Angerer 1984 No data Heinrich and Angerer 1984No data Afeworki and Chandravanshi 1987 No data Sunderman et al. 1989
COBALT 267 7. ANALYTICAL METHODS Table 7-1. Analytical Methods for Determining Stable Cobalt in Biological Materials Sample Analytical Sample Percent matrix Preparation method method detection limit recovery Reference Blood or Acid digestion ICP-AES (NIOSH 10 µg/g 81% at NIOSH 1984 tissue method 8005) (blood); 110 µg/L 0.2 µg/g (blood) (tissue) D2= deuterium; DPCSV = differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry; GF-AAS = graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry; ICP-AES = inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; NIOSH = National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
COBALT 268 7. ANALYTICAL METHODS Table 7-2. Analytical Methods for Determining Radioactive Cobalt in Biological Samples Sample matrix Preparation method Analytical method Sample detection limita Percent recovery Reference Urine Direct count of sample γ-spectrometry with NaI detector No data (<MDL) No data Miltenberger et al. 1981 Soft tissue Sample wet-ashed γ-spectrometry (NaI) No data No data Baratta et al. 1969 Sample directly counted in detector γ-spectrometry 5 pCi/g No data Rabon and Johnson 1973 Sample digested in acid, oxidized with HClO4, con-centrated by precipitation with AMP, purified by resin column, precipitated with hexachloroplatinic acid -counter 0.1 pCi/g 40–85% Nevissi 1992 Feces Direct count of sample γ-spectrometry No data No data Smith et al. 1972 Blood Red cells separated from plasma and washed γ-spectrometry with NaI detector No data No data Smith et al. 1972 a1 Bq=2.7x10-11Ci=27 pCi AMP = ammonium molybdophosphate; MDL = minimum detectable level; NaI = sodium iodide
COBALT 269 7. ANALYTICAL METHODS performed with various radiation detectors and associated electronic devices that are collectively known as whole body counters. These radiation detectors commonly utilize sodium iodide (NaI), hyperpure germanium, and organic liquid scintillation detectors to measure the 1,172 and 1,332 keV gamma rays from the decay of 60Co. Because of the relatively low attenuation of the high energy gamma rays emitted