Course Hero Logo

2000this plan continued the focus on hardware

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 44 - 47 out of 202 pages.

(2000)—This plan continued the focus on hardware, software,and also extended infrastructure to include networks andextended the focus teachers’ learning to the transformation ofinstructional activities to make use of technology.Toward A New Golden Age In American EducationHow theInternet, the Law and Today’s Students Are RevolutionizingExpectations (2004)—This plan changed the focus from
technology planning to increase and use infrastructure to otheraspects of planning and also focusing on different types oftechnology-rich learning, namely online learning.Transforming American Education: Learning Powered byTechnology.(2010)—This technology plan again refocusedtechnology planning on assessment and measuring whatmatters.Future Ready Learning: Reimagining the Role of Technology inEducation. National Education Technology Plan(2016)—Thisplan is comprehensive and includes goals related toinfrastructure, teaching and learning, professional development,innovation and assessment.Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education(2017)—Inthis plan that Department of Education of the United Statesintends to begin more frequent and less comprehensive updates.In the decades-long history of advice for IT managers from thenational education leaders, we can see changes in what they wereexpected to do locally. While it is reasonable for all organizationalleaders, especially leaders of public institutions, to adjust their goalsand their planning efforts to reflect new knowledge and developingpractice, the changes in direction coming from external and politicallypowerful influences can produce unintended consequences for localcommunities. What was “best practice” while one plan was in place isabandoned when new plans or new findings emerge. Planners are rarelyable to follow through with plans addressing one set of goals whenanother is implemented; the result can be planners who focus theirattention on other goals. The result is that educational technologyplanners have rarely been able to complete their plans and fullyunderstand the implications of their work before the focus changed.Educators are also a non-neutral part of schools; their beliefs,values, and experiences all affect the actions they take. For those whohave become deeply engaged with a set of practices and who haveinvested much cognitive effort in understanding the rationale behindthose practices, the decision to abandon it can be distressing. Thisproblem is exacerbated when the decision-makers show little empathyfor the knowledge of the teachers and the affective connection theyhave for their work.
To accommodate these many changing factors influencing ITmanagers and the environments for which they design systems and tointroduce some consistency into the planning for technology-richteaching and learning, IT managers can use theory to organize theoryefforts. When organized by sound theory, changes in the focus oftechnology planning can appear less drastic to members of the

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 202 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Spring
Professor
zuy
Tags
Educational Psychology, cognitive load

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture