striated and powerful, but the cells are short and branched, not fused together in multi-nuclei fibers but "zipped" together with special connections (intercalated discs) that may be visible under the microscope; unlike skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles can contract with a set rhythm, as would be useful in a blood-pumping organ, and are not generally under any kind of conscious control. Smooth muscle cells are not striated, often short, single cells with points at each end; compared to the other muscle types, they are weaker, use less energy, but are almost tireless, often forming sheets or tube linings in organs that need to move materials along. They are not usually under conscious control.Nervous Tissue: Distinct features and functions: only the cells in nervous tissues can carry electrochemical messages called impulses, which allow us to process reflex, memory, and understanding in our spinal cords and brain; some nervous tissue can convert environmental information into those messages - they function as receptors for our senses, in sense organs. Elsewhere, the "wiring" of the system is usually too fine to be visible under a microscope.Reproductive / Germ / Stem Tissue: Distinct features and functions: cellsin this tissue, which is known by several names, have the ability to take normal body-type cells, each of which contain two sets of chromosomes (onefrom each parent), and through a special cell division process called meiosis produce gametes, either sperm or egg cells, which contain only single sets ofchromosomes and can be used to produce offspring. Sperm and egg cells areconsidered types of reproductive tissue. ANIMAL TISSUESIn animals, organs are composed of varying combinations of four basic tissue types -- epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Each of these tissues has distinctive structural features and specific functions which are again combined to produce 2
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functioning organs. The various tissues will be examined and their organization into one specific organ will be studied.A.Basic Tissue TypesEpithelial Tissue:Epithelial tissue forms the covering or lining of freebodysurfaces, both internaland external. For example, the outer layer of the skin is formed from epithelial tissue as are the inner linings of the digestive tract and blood vessels. As a group, epithelial tissues perform a varietyof functions, including protection, absorption, excretion, secretionand lubrication. Classification of Epithelial Tissue :The cells of the epithelial tissue are tightly packed and rest on a thin basement membrane(Figure 3). The free surface of the epithelium is exposed to air or fluid. No blood vessels are present. Epithelial tissues are classified according to the shape of the component cells and the arrangement of these cells into one or more layers. The shapes of the cells may be (Figure 3):squamous-- flat, scale-like cells (“fried-egg” appearance).
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