Chicago slaughter yards and individuals will fall into vats o Beef tallow = a bit reverse, more saturated Butter = mostly saturated fat Margarine = variety Cooking in Mongolia use fats from goats/sheep o Stirring in noodles or rice and consume often twice a day o Real butter making coming from the yak Crisco mostly saturated fat and 20% water Plant fats margarines like Becel; range from 20-60% water Margarine came from France o Napoleon the third challenged people to make something for soldiers WWII use of margarine because butter was unavailable Becel light 58% water o When heated and let to sit, water and oil become separated Video 5: Nuvel (margarine)
o Water is first listed ingredient o Guar gum makes it more solid, not so liquid-y “Regular” margarine o Partially hydrogenated soya oil, liquid soya oil, water at 16% Video 6: How is Margarine Made? Becel normally made in a blended process Smart Beat o Trans fat free An unsaturated fatty acid chain has one double bond called an unsaturated linkage Trans double bonds because the hydrogens are on the other side Can rotate single bonds, not double bonds Steps : o Take a significant amount of unsaturated fats (normally liquids) o Add elemental hydrogen (H2) to many double bonds in the liquid oil to make it higher percentage of saturated fat to give it a spreadable material o This causes a partial reorganization of the bonding to give some trans double bonds Overall Process : o CIS unsaturated of double bonds + H2 + catalyst (palladium or platinum) o This double bond will associate with the surface of the catalyst (which is embedded with H2 o Both become transferred and results in a saturated fat o Hydrogens are added one at a time OR: o One hydrogen is added and then rotation occurs to give trans fat while 2 nd hydrogen reattaches to catalyst surface (impurity) Major point the entire process of making margarine is hydrogenation with an impurity for the CIS double bonds to change into trans double bonds Video 7: Trans Fat Free products Can’t put margarine in the freezer because of the amount of water Becel margarine only has 16% water, major ingredient is canola and sunflower oil Natural trans fats do not appear to increase cholesterol levels (compared to trans fats hydrogenated by oils) Video 8: Meat
o Meat with fats in it, can illustrate the amount of saturated fat (one piece = about 5 pads) o Filet mignon has less fat in it and more tender Associated with saturated fats is cholesterol, bile acid and other material can build up in the arteries Video 9: Saturated fats contribute to elevated cholesterol o 80% of the cholesterol in our bodies is made by our bodies The issue over fat is not so clear 3 independent research groups worked on computer models on life expectancy if saturated fat was reduced from the usual 30% to 10% o Harvard study the model was 3 days to 3 months if saturated fat is reduced o UCSF
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