Your course materials i nclude a document titled

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Your course materials include a document titled “Delegated and Prohibited Powers.” Please read it now. If you pay close attention, you’ll notice that the Framers were particularly focused on boosting the national government’s powers in three areas: the U.S. economy, foreign affairs, and the military. To provide revenue for the national government and cut its financial dependence on state governments, the Framers gave Congress power to levy taxes and borrow money. They had other monetary objectives as well. To provide a mutual basis of exchange throughout the states, Congress was given power to coin U.S. money, regulate the value of coin circulating in America, and punish counterfeiting. A national system of post offices and post roads would facilitate exchange across state lines. Moreover, with powers to regulate bankruptcy, punish piracy, and secure patents and copyrights, Congress could encourage private investment by protecting investors’ property rights.At the time of the Constitutional Convention, the U.S. economy was in disgrace for lack of centralized direction. Each state behaved as it pleased regardless of national consequences. Thus, to prevent “tariffwars” and other commercial conflicts among the states, the Framers gave Congress power to regulate interstate commerce. Such regulation, they hoped, would transform the rival state economies into a more unified national economy. The Framers also desired a unified policy on foreign trade, which would promote economic development by making it easier for nations to conduct business with America. Thus, in addition to regulating commerce among the states, Congress was also empowered to regulate foreign commerce. Some of these powers were new and others were held over from the Articles of Confederation. The main goal was to create stable markets nationwide by empowering Congress to make uniform economic policies. But a stable U.S. economy would not happen as long as individual states could disrupt national objectives with their own conflicting policies. For this reason, the Framers decided to prohibit individual states from coining their own money, issuing paper money, requiring creditors to accept paper money, impairing obligations created under valid contracts, taxing imports without congressional authorization, and taxing ships for port entry without congressional authorization. Moreover, through the full faith and
18 credit clause of the Constitution, each state was required to honor civil judgments and contracts made in other states. Economically, the states were to start behaving as a nation instead of rivals. The Framers also wanted to increase national control over foreign affairs and the military. In order to gain respect abroad, the so-called “United Stateswould have to come together on these matters. Thus, in addition to regulating commerce with foreign nations, the Framers gave Congress power to punish offenses against the law of nations and to establish a uniform rule of naturalization (allowing foreigners

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