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(1) Meaning, A person feels more empowered if the content and consequences of the work are consistent with aperson’s values and ideals, (2) Self-determination, the person has the capability to determine how and when the work is done, (3) Self-efficacy, the person has high confidence about being able to do it effectively, and (4) Impact, the person believes it is possible to have a significant impact on the job and work environment.(4) Guidelines for empowerment(6) Mintberg’s model describing managerial role and list at least 6 guidelines for performing managerial rolesChapter 2- Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles:Managerial RolesThe early descriptive research on managerial work was concerned primarily with providing a description of activitypatterns. Then, the focus of descriptive research shifted to classifying the content of managerial activity in terms of its purpose. A major difficulty in this research has been to determine what behavior categories are meaningful, distinct, and relevant for classifying observed activities of managers. In attempting to resolve this question, different researchers have developed taxonomies of managerial roles or functions.Mintzberg's Taxonomy of RolesMintzberg (1973) developed a taxonomy of 10 managerial roles to use for coding the content of activities observed in a study of executives (see Table 2-1 ). These roles account for all of a manager’s activities, and each activity can be explained in terms of at least one role, although many activities involve more than one role. The managerial roles apply to any manager, but their relative importance may vary from one kind of manager to another. The roles are largely predetermined by the nature of the managerial position, but each manager has some flexibility in how to interpret and enact each role. Three roles deal with the interpersonal behavior of managers (leader, liaison, figurehead), three roles deal with information-processing behavior (monitor, disseminator, spokesperson), and four roles deal with decision-making behavior (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator). Each type of role will be described in more detail.Leader Role. Managers are responsible for making their organizational subunit function as an integrated whole in the pursuit of its basic purpose. Consequently, the manager must provide guidance to subordinates, ensure that they are motivated, and create favorable conditions for doing the work. A number of managerial activities are
7expressly concerned with the leader role, including hiring, training, directing, praising, criticizing, promoting, and dismissing. However, the leader role pervades all managerial activities, even those with some other basic purpose.Liaison Role. The liaison role includes behavior intended to establish and maintain a web of relationships with individuals and groups outside of a manager’s organizational unit. These relationships are vital as a source of information and favors. The essence of the liaison role is making new contacts, keeping in touch, and doing favors