disappear, elements of high culture are also increasingly being mixed with popularculture to produce new cultural forms. The new cultural tourist might visit the museumduring the day, but the evening is more likely to be spent at a show or a disco than atthe opera.Different types of tourists require different marketing approaches. Not only domotivations differ, but the role of holiday experience is increasingly important. First
time visitors are far more likely to accept the traditional sites and monumentsapproach. Second and third time visitors are more likely to seek out the living culture,as they have already done the “must-see sights” on the first visit.Museums are undoubtedly the most popular form of cultural attraction for culturaltourists. In 1997 more than 50% of the tourists visited a museum during their stay inthe research location (Richards, 1998). Monuments (40%) and galleries (30%) werealso very popular, but the performing arts (23%) and festivals (9%) were lessfrequently visited. This supports the distinction made in the 1992 research (Richards,1996a) between ‘heritage’ attractions, which have a low visit threshold and ‘arts’attractions, which are often less accessible, because of the limited time ofperformances, the difficulty of obtaining information and tickets and the languagebarriers which are often involved.In 1997 a new question was posed about the popularity of a number of major culturaltourism destinations with cultural visitors. The results show that Paris, Rome andLondon are by far the favourite cultural tourism destinations in Europe (figure 1). Thisis related to the high concentration of ‘real cultural capital’ in these cities (Richards,1996b). A second group of cities, which includes Athens, Venice, Florence andAmsterdam also scores relatively well, particularly among visitors with a culturaloccupation. These cities tend to be smaller, and in addition to a rich historical pasthave a wide range of museums, monuments and also a great deal of ‘living culture’.Cities which fall outside the top 10 usually have less attractions, or are perceived asoffering less atmosphere. The combination of a rich supply of ‘real cultural capital’
and living culture or atmosphere was often decisive in the destination choice ofspecific cultural tourists (Goedhart, 1997).Insert figure 1 hereThe Supply of Cultural AttractionsAn increasingly important aspect of cultural tourism is the role of cultural producers inassembling the cultural tourism product. The demand for cultural tourism to aparticular city can be closely linked to the amount and quality of ‘real cultural capital’(Britton, 1991; Zukin, 1991, 1996) that it has. This real cultural capital provides thebasic raw material for the ‘new producers’ or ‘new cultural intermediaries’ to developproducts for cultural consumption (Richards, 1996b).
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The Diary of a Young Girl, World Tourism Organization, Cultural tourism, Cultural Tourism department, Cultural Tourism Development and Government Policy