Examples of groups are fraternities dance companies

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Fraternities dance companies clubs tenants’ associations PRIMARY GROUPS - This term refers to a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation. sense of identity (self + group = “we”) social control; social cohesion SECONDARY GROUPS This term refers to formal, impersonal groups in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding. Goal oriented Functional for the society Tend to break down into primary groups The “Ins” & “Outs” In-Groups In-groups are any groups or categories to which people feel they belong. Out-group Out-groups are any groups or categories to which people feel they do not belong. PEER GROUPS Informal group of people who share similar status and are usually similar age Equality Found in all age groups Reference Groups Reference groups are any groups individuals use as standards for evaluating themselves and their own behavior. Reference groups serve normative functions. Reference groups set and enforce standards and also perform comparison functions. Size of Group Smaller groups have greater interaction opportunities. Dyad: A two member group. Triad : A three member group. Coalition: A temporary or permanent alliance geared
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toward a common goal. As a group grows larger Division of labor increases Becomes more stable Intimacy, cohesion decreases; become more formal Communication changes Divides into smaller groups Formal Organization A formal organization is a special-purpose group designed and structured for maximum efficiency. Examples of formal organizations: the U.S. Post Office McDonald’s restaurants the Boston Pops Bureaucracy A bureaucracy is a component of formal organization in which rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve efficiency. Ideal Type Bureaucracy This term indicates a construct or model serving as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated. Bureaucratization Bureaucratization is the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic. Oligarchy An oligarchy is a bureaucracy ruled by a few. Institution SOCIAL CONTROL Conformity and Obedience: Conformity is defined as going along with peers who have no special right to direct our behavior. Obedience is defined as compliance with higher authorities in an hierarchical structure. Milgram’s experiments: OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY!! If ordered to do so, would you give people increasingly painful electric shocks?
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Social control can alter people’s behavior. DEVIANCE Violation of widely accepted social norms Exists in every society Different in each society: culturally related Within a society Changes over time Changes with the actor Changes with the situation Changes with the audience Different types of deviance FOLKWAYS refers to simple everyday norms based on customs, traditions, or etiquette
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