4 slight increase Preterm birth rate less than 37 weeks was 1199 declining

4 slight increase preterm birth rate less than 37

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Average age at first birth for women: 25.4 (slight increase) Preterm birth rate (less than 37 weeks) was 11.99% (declining); early preterm (prior to 34 weeks) was 3.5% 32.4% C-section, only 1.2% of births at home and the rest are in hospitals or birthing centers Vaginal Birth 3 stages Contractions: Begins around 3 cm dilation of the cervix Birth: Dilation about 10 cm Placenta Pain control Non-medical: Home Birth, water birth, meditation, etc Medical: Epidural analgesia Caesareans Major abdominal surgery Surgical complications Maternal rehospitalization more common Costs are double Reasons for it Birth complications (Large baby, previous c-section, breech, retrieving early)
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Inducing labor Doctor convenience Some evidence that doctors and parents are scheduling C- sections rather than vaginal, afraid low chance of risk so they schedule C-section Parental convenience After Child Birth Vaginal soreness Bleeding Contractions Pain 29% evidence fractures in pubic bones Muscle soreness 41% had tears in pelvic floor muscles 77% have back pain at a year postpartum Breast engorgement Pelvic floor disorder Urinary incontinence (49%) Fecal incontinence Vaginal prolapse (4% of vaginal births) This isn't stuff that’s always talked about, but this is a large effect that should be considered with relationships and maternity leave Transition to Parenthood Maternal Mortality 650 women die in the US due to pregnancy complications During pregnancy and a year after birth (CDC definition) From a complication of pregnancy 21 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (up to 42 days past birth) In Texas, 95 women died in 2010 as a result of pregnancy or childbearing (24.6 per 100,000 live births) Compare to 44.5 mortality rate for heart disease Theories for Texas Lack of prenatal care, especially in lower income areas Aneurysm common complication after birth Cost of Having a Child $8800 for prenatal, delivery and postpartum care $3500 for hospital delivery Cost of delivery only, not other care Not taking insurance into account You have to add baby to insurance Working Parents 89.3% of families have one working parent (96.7% in married couples) Both parents work in about 60% of married parent families Married mothers are less likely to work than unmarried mothers 93% of fathers work: married (94%) versus unmarried (87%) What do we think about this?
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70% of Americans think that mothers can still have loving relationships with their children (up from 49% in 1977) 60% of Americans think that children are better off with a parent at home Double standard held because work might interfere with mother’s ability to form a loving relationship with their children Mothers in the Workforce The older your youngest child is, the more likely you are to work Family Leave in the US In 2016, about 14% of workers had access to paid family leave 68% have sick benefits 38% have short term disability
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