Average age at first birth for women: 25.4 (slight increase) ○ Preterm birth rate (less than 37 weeks) was 11.99% (declining); early preterm (prior to 34 weeks) was 3.5% ○ 32.4% C-section, only 1.2% of births at home and the rest are in hospitals or birthing centers ● Vaginal Birth ○ 3 stages ■ Contractions: Begins around 3 cm dilation of the cervix ■ Birth: Dilation about 10 cm ■ Placenta ○ Pain control ■ Non-medical: Home Birth, water birth, meditation, etc ■ Medical: Epidural analgesia ● Caesareans ○ Major abdominal surgery ■ Surgical complications ■ Maternal rehospitalization more common ■ Costs are double ○ Reasons for it ■ Birth complications (Large baby, previous c-section, breech, retrieving early)
■ Inducing labor ■ Doctor convenience ● Some evidence that doctors and parents are scheduling C- sections rather than vaginal, afraid low chance of risk so they schedule C-section ■ Parental convenience ● After Child Birth ○ Vaginal soreness ○ Bleeding ○ Contractions ○ Pain ■ 29% evidence fractures in pubic bones ○ Muscle soreness ■ 41% had tears in pelvic floor muscles ■ 77% have back pain at a year postpartum ○ Breast engorgement ○ Pelvic floor disorder ■ Urinary incontinence (49%) ■ Fecal incontinence ■ Vaginal prolapse (4% of vaginal births) This isn't stuff that’s always talked about, but this is a large effect that should be considered with relationships and maternity leave Transition to Parenthood Maternal Mortality ● 650 women die in the US due to pregnancy complications ○ During pregnancy and a year after birth (CDC definition) ○ From a complication of pregnancy ○ 21 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (up to 42 days past birth) ○ In Texas, 95 women died in 2010 as a result of pregnancy or childbearing (24.6 per 100,000 live births) ■ Compare to 44.5 mortality rate for heart disease ■ Theories for Texas ● Lack of prenatal care, especially in lower income areas ○ Aneurysm common complication after birth ● Cost of Having a Child ○ $8800 for prenatal, delivery and postpartum care ○ $3500 for hospital delivery ■ Cost of delivery only, not other care ○ Not taking insurance into account ■ You have to add baby to insurance ● Working Parents ○ 89.3% of families have one working parent (96.7% in married couples) ○ Both parents work in about 60% of married parent families ○ Married mothers are less likely to work than unmarried mothers ○ 93% of fathers work: married (94%) versus unmarried (87%) ○ What do we think about this?
■ 70% of Americans think that mothers can still have loving relationships with their children (up from 49% in 1977) ■ 60% of Americans think that children are better off with a parent at home ■ Double standard held because work might interfere with mother’s ability to form a loving relationship with their children ● Mothers in the Workforce ○ The older your youngest child is, the more likely you are to work ● Family Leave in the US ○ In 2016, about 14% of workers had access to paid family leave ■ 68% have sick benefits ■ 38% have short term disability ○
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- Spring '08