Enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad

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Enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen - The mental processes that control our social behavior are distinct from the mental processes through which we explain our behavior (Wilson, 1985) o Our rational explanations may therefore omit the unconscious attitudes that actually guide our behavior - Dual attitude (Wilson and his colleagues, 2000) o Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object o Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion o Implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits Self-regulation - The process by which we seek to control or alter our thoughts, feelings, behaviors and urges - Life a muscle takes resources o Once used resources are temporarily depleted, making it difficult to show self-control - Vohs and Heatherton (2000)
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o Dieters sat within arm’s reach of snacks (high temptation) or across the room from snacks (low temptation) while watching a video o After the video, they were taken to another room for an ice-cream taste test o The high temptation participants consumed much more ice cream Self-regulation resources were depleted - Practices to improve self-regulation (Keng et al, 2017) o Mindfulness Improves attention which in turn helps to regulate negative affect and executive functioning o Cognitive reappraisal To think about a situation in an adaptive way Self-control - Effortful self-control depletes our limited willpower reserves - Weaker after exertion, replenished with rest and strengthened by exercise (Baumeister & Exline, 2000) Self-efficacy - A sense that one is competent and effective believe you can do something - Distinguished from self-esteem - Leads us to set challenging goals and to persist - People with strong feelings of self-efficacy are more persistent, less anxious and less depressed - Grows with hard-won achievements - Self-efficacy feedback led to better performance than self-esteem feedback Locus of control (Rotter, 1973) - Extent to which people perceive outcomes as o Internally controllable by their own efforts or o Externally controlled by chance or outside forces - Langer and Rodin (1976) o Elderly patients in a nursing home given a sense of personal control far better In charge of caring for plant (high control) vs a staff would care for the plant (low control) o 93% felt improved alertness, activity and happiness o 6 months later, 15% of high control group vs 30% of low control group died Learned helplessness (Seligman, 1975) - Sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events
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Excess of freedom (Schwartz, 2000) - Causing decreased life satisfaction and increased rates of clinical depression - Making choices is also tiring Self-serving bias - Tendency to perceive oneself favorably - Self-serving attributions o Attribute the success to their ability and effort (Campbell & Sedikides, 1999) o Attribute failure to external factors - Also appears when people compare themselves with others o Most people see themselves as better than the average person - Subjective behavioral dimensions trigger even greater self-serving bias than observable behavioral dimensions - A by-product of how we process and remember information about ourselves -
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