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dramatically. As a result, life-span developmentalists have been paying more attention to differences within late adulthood. Paul Baltes and Jacqui Smith (2003) argue that a major change takes place in older adults’ lives as they become the “oldest old,” on average at about 85 years of age. For example, the “young old” (classified as 65 through 84 in this analysis) have substantial potential for physical and cognitive fitness, retain much of their cognitive capacity, and can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging. In contrast, the oldest old (85 and older) show considerable loss in cognitive skills, experience an increase in chronic stress, and are more frail. Nonetheless, as we see in other chapters, considerable variation exists in the degree to which the oldest old retain their capabilities. 12.Recent interest has focused on which ‘age’? Know some of the different ‘conceptions of age (p. 14-15). 13.How might you define the term ‘functional age?