# The averaging is usually done over all days of a

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10 Dec Mar June Sep Dec now be given. Angle of incidence θ It is the angle between an incident beam of flux I bn and the normal to a plane surface . Then the equivalent flux failing normal to the surface is given by I bn cos θ. The angle θ can be related by a general equation to φ the latitude, β the slope, γ the surface azimuth angle, δ the declination, and, ω the hour angle. Each of these will first be defined . Latitude φ The latitude φ of a location is the angle made by the radial line joining the location to the centre of the earth with the projection of the line on the equatorial plane . By convention, the latitude is measured as positive for the northern hemi- sphere. It can vary from -90° + 90°. Slope β : The slope β is the angle made by the plane surface with the horizontal . It can vary from 0 to 180°. Surface azimuth angle γ The surface azimuth angle γ is the angle made in the horizontal plane between the horizontal line due south and the projection of the normal to the surface on the horizontal plane . It can vary from -180° to + 180°. We adopt the convention that the angle is positive if the normal is east of south and negative if west of south.

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