Researchers glossed over this issue because they

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researchers glossed over this issue because they focused on simple behaviors where there were no differences and if there was a complex behavior we learn them through ”shaping” therefore a social skill is reinforced slowly until we have mastered it. Bandura would say this is ridiculous and there is no way to set up the environment to be systematically reinforced and in fact there is another way we learn most of our behaviors “observational learning”. Reinforcement is critical to the performance but the acquisition is a function of observational learning. humans are incredibly social so it is totally natural to observe those around us and learn. we are capable of highly complex overt behaviors and lots of evidence suggesting that we learn emotions through observation! B. The wide, wide domain of observational learning. complex overt behaviors; emotional reactions; standards for self-evaluation; if you are at McGill and there is a motto for being serious, etc so our standards will be made depending on the people around us. complex social rules; 5 Thursday, February 10, 2011
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IV. Cognitive Regulation of Behavior A. Reinforcement mediated by cognition Bandura did not think reinforcement had a direct effect. He felt that expectancies about what you are capable of and what will happen is what reinforcement mediates. B. Direct vs vicarious reinforcement with a chid who behave aggressively; it will be influenced based on if they are directly rewarded or punished. they are also affected if they a model is rewarded or punished! In another experiment by Bandura the child observes the aggressive model and see them getting punished, rewarded, or nothing. LAter observing the kids with an opportunity in free time, wether the model was reinforced predicted the child's behavior. every child acquire the acquisition of observational learning but the act of doing it was dependent on reinforcement, vicarious or direct. one of his best friends wore a pink shirt and was so humiliated that every one of his friends learned never to do that again therefore vicarious reinforcement is very important and bandura would say its more important! C. Self reinforcement we can reward ourself if proud of our self! this can be done overtly or covertly (typically done covertly; self-thoughts that evaluate how we are doing). This capacity takes away from emphasis on environment D. Expectancies: self-efficacy and outcome he distinguished between two expectancies. Efficacy: if we feel capable of performing a specific action. Outcome: what you think the result of you achieving your goal will be. Ex. they can be separated and discrepant. (ex. friend thinks about divorcing his wife, he is capable of explaining
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