2.6 Discussion The research study aimed to gain and understand more information from patients suffering from URTIs to enhance the development of strategies of administering medicine to those patients and to give appropriate recommendations for further reference while promoting the judicious use of the drugs. About 80% of URTIs’ causal organisms are viral which in essence do not respond to antibiotic treatment, but in most cases, physicians and other medical practitioners usually prescribe antibiotic therapy for such illnesses. As a result, URTIs are some 32 Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimu Maximu Sum Mean Std. Error AGE 48035 109 1 110 1006822 20.96 .094 Valid N (list wise) 48035 Std. Deviation Variance Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error 20.499 420.215 1.135 .011 .548 .022
of the significant strategic targets in the process of trying to reduce the excess usage of antibiotics. The rate of antibiotic prescribing in this study was 81.5% which was expressed as 81.5% (95%CI 84, 79%) which is a very high rate and raises some serious concerns. The rate of antibiotic prescription was higher in women, 86% (95%CI 79, 86%) than in men 75 %( 95% CI 75, 79%). Further analysis with the chi-square test of antibiotic prescribing (dependent variable) and gender, age, facility type and facility ownership (independent variables) revealed that all the exposure variables had substantial influence and association with antibiotic prescribing since (p<0.05) except for age whose p-value was (p>0.05). Overprescribing of antibiotics is a major problem in many countries, and the study results are full proof that Ghana is not an exemption. An investigation that was conducted in Eritrea revealed that over seventy-five percent of adults and young children diagnosed with URTIs were given an antibiotic prescription while the rate in Malaysia was 65%. Most of the patients with the common cold were prescribed an antibiotic. The high rate of antibiotics prescribed is a cause of alarm since antibiotics have no therapeutic significance on them but comes along with a substantial level of side effects which are quite evident in adults. Besides, antibiotics do not warrant a better outcome concerning cure or persistence of symptoms in patients that receive antibiotics compared to those that don’t. URTIs are typically acute viral infections. Guidelines by Centre of Disease Control (CDC) do not recommend antibiotic prescribing in general URTIs because antibiotics neither enhance illness resolution nor prevent complications. This high rate in Ghana could be attributable to a lack of specifications in the treatment guidelines on how to manage nonspecific URTIs and whether antibiotics should be prescribed or not. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, Acute Otitis Media does not always require antibiotic therapy, but the observation is an acceptable option in healthy children with mild symptoms. This option is appropriate only when follow-up can be 33
ensured and antibacterial agents started if symptoms persist or worsen.
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- Summer '16
- Smith Eliud
- It, ........., Upper respiratory tract infection, URTIs