We must lead class discussions about thinking we must

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goes awry. We must lead class discussions about thinking. We must explicitly model thinking (e.g.,  thinking aloud through a problem). We must design classroom activities that explicitly require  students to think about their thinking. We must have students examine both poor and sound thinking, talking about the differences. We must introduce students to the parts of thinking and the intellectual  standards necessary to assess thinking. We must introduce the idea of intellectual humility to  students; that is, the idea of becoming aware of our own ignorance. Perhaps children can best  understand the importance of this idea through their concept of the "know-it-all," which comes  closest to their recognition of the need to be intellectually humble. Stage Three: The Beginning Thinker Defining Feature : Those who move to the beginning thinker stage are actively taking up the  challenge to begin to take explicit command of their thinking across multiple domains of their lives.  Thinkers at this stage recognize that they have basic problems in their thinking and make initial  attempts to better understand how they can take charge of and improve it. Based on this initial  understanding, beginning thinkers begin to modify some of their thinking, but have limited insight into deeper levels of the trouble inherent in their thinking. Most importantly, they lack a systematic plan  for improving their thinking; hence their efforts are hit and miss.
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Principal Challenge : To begin to see the importance of developing as a thinker. To begin to seek  ways to develop as a thinker and to make an intellectual commitment to that end. Knowledge of Thinking : Beginning thinkers, unlike challenged thinkers are becoming aware not  only of thinking as such, but also of the role in thinking of concepts, assumptions, inferences,  implications, points of view, etc. Beginning thinkers are also at some beginning stage of recognizing  not only that there are standards for the assessment of thinking: clarity, accuracy, precision,  relevance, logicalness, etc., but also that one needs to internalize them and thus begin using them  deliberately in thinking. They have a beginning understanding of the role of egocentric thinking in  human life. Skill in Thinking : Beginning thinkers are able to appreciate a critique of their powers of thought.  Beginning thinkers have enough skill in thinking to begin to monitor their own thoughts, though as  “beginners” they are sporadic in that monitoring. They are beginning to recognize egocentric thinking in themselves and others.
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