framework was confirmed in its applications to the two case studies mentioned

Framework was confirmed in its applications to the

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Buitelaar et al.’s framework was confirmed in its applications to the two case studies mentioned above. They found that institutions can become strongly embedded once they are formalised and that institutional change is partly path-dependent. In addition, they confirm that agency of actors played an important role in the change processes. In essence, Buitelaar et al.’s model of institutional change combines elements of HI, DI and MS. It does not, however, completely integrate the respective theories. Change is limited and affected by existing institutional structures (HI). At the same time, actors are attributed with a greater level of agency and can initiate change through discourse as bricoleurs (DI). However, while discourse is a fundamental part of institutional change, it is mainl y restricted to the political stream. In summary, Buitelaar et al.’s study and their empirical findings encourage the use of a model that combines DI with MS because it considers different aspects of the policy agenda setting process, which would not have been investigated under a single theory. By including discursive elements, Buitelaar et al. are able (1) to explain how agentic actors can translate a new idea into reality, and (2) to demonstrate that HI elements were not only limiting, but enabling. 4.4 COLLECTIVE ACTORS Collective actors can be defined as small groups of two individuals on one end of the scale or worldwide movements at the other end of the scale. For the purpose of this thesis, two types of collective actors are identified. The first group are organisational actors. It is assumed that actors belonging to the same organisation have a common objective and they are identified by their association with an organisation. For organisational actors include the FRC, the AASB or the Federal Department of Treasury. This identification is simplistic and does not necessarily accommodate for different groups or opinions within one organisation. A second type of collective actors is needed to identify collective action with regard to policy preferences, potentially
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97 across organisations. For the purpose of this thesis, the concept of the ‘epistemic community’ was selected. Collective actors can participate in all areas of the agenda setting process. They can be members of the public, the policy stream or the political stream or a congregation of members from either stream. Collective actors can also influence the identification of problems and the policy idea. They can be vital in the promotion or opposition to an idea. MS and DI assume that policy ideas are more likely to succeed when they are accepted by the public. As a result, promoters and decision-makers seek legitimisation or at least public acquiescence. In the traditional sense, ‘the public’ is ‘the people’ with a common interest. In political sciences, the common interest is the state or government, and the public are the citizens. The public can, however, be defined in a more narrow, situational way, as for example proposed by Grunig and Holt (1984), who developed four categories of ‘publics’.
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  • Fall '13
  • Government, The Land, International Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Accounting Standards Board, Australian Accounting Standards Board, Snow

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