Exercise 4 11 1 in terms of expertise wed list d c

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Exercise 4-11 ▲1. In terms of expertise, we’d list (d), (c), and (b) first. Given what we’ve got to go on, we wouldn’t assign expert status to either (a) or (e). We’d list all entries as likely to be fairly unbiased except for (a), which we would expect to be very biased. 2. If the friend’s interests and needs are similar to ours and we trust his or her judgment, then we like (b) best. Source (c) will certainly be biased, and (a) might be. Expertise among writers of newspaper columns varies a lot, as does level of bias; at best they’re writing for a mass audience. Source (e) brings up many of the same problems, plus the possibility of advertising pressure. Magazine reviews, however, usually go into more detail and are more sophisticated than those found in newspapers; they are therefore probably more valuable sources for people who are moderately knowledgeable. ▲3. Expertise: First (b), then (a), then (c) and (d) about equal, and (e) last. We’d figure that (b) is most likely to be unbiased, with (c), (d), and (e) close behind; Choker would be a distant last on this scale. Her bad showing on the bias scale more than makes up for her high showing on the expertise scale. 4. We’d expect the former owner’s mechanic to know the car best. We’d expect the salesperson to be the least reliable, mainly because of bias. The independent mechanic is probably unbiased and knowledgeable but isn’t likely to be able to learn as much about the car as the former mechanic in a short time. We would not trust ourselves to be unbiased, especially if the car is a sporty red convertible. 5. We’d depend first on the magician, who is trained in the methods of illusion, then we’d have to group all the rest, except the psychic, together. There is a reason each of these might be better than a person off the street at spotting deception, but it’s hard to compare their likely abilities. Obviously, as one who either already believes in the phenomenon or has an interest in others holding such beliefs, the psychic is an interested party and the least credible on the list. Exercise 4-12 ▲1.The most credible choices are either the FDA or Consumer Reports , both of which investigate health claims of the sort in question with reasonable objectivity. The company that makes the product is the least credible source because it is the most likely to be biased. The owner of the health food store may be very knowledgeable regarding nutrition but is not a credible source regarding drugs. Your local pharmacist can reasonably be regarded as credible, but he or she may not have access to as much information as the FDA or CR . (We should add IM – 4 | 4
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here that the FDA itself has come under considerable criticism in recent years, especially for making decisions on medical issues based on political considerations. The debate over approval of Plan B, the “morning after” pill, was a case in point. [See “Morning-After Pill,” The New York Times , August 28, 2005.]) ▲2. It would probably be a mistake to consider any of the individuals on this list more expert
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