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28. Describe endochondral ossification. What type of bone is being formed? What are the units called? What cell is responsible for this bone growth?b.29. How is the perichondrium involved in this process? What is the periosteum? 30. Which type of bone formation involves a primary and secondary ossification center? Where are these ossification centers? What occurs in them?31. The centers of ossification are locations of ossification, where is the newest bone and where is the oldest. Name an area in the skull where ossification doesn’t occur until 2 years of age. 32. What is the epiphyseal plate? Where is the zone of new bone growth?33. What is the epiphyseal line? What type of bone growth occurred at this area?34. How do bones grow in diameter? 35. What cells are apparently responsible for the resorption of bone tissue?
Borek Chapter 7 Skeletal System: Bone and Structure and Function36. What hormone is responsible for the general growth of bones? How does the hormone thyroxine affect this process? 37. What effect does sex hormones have on bone growth?38. How are the osteoclasts affected by calcitonin? By PTH ? What type of feedback mechanism regulates this system? 39. Name 3 ways PTH helps to maintain blood calcium levels. 40. Normal bone homeostasis is dependent on proper balance of the activity of what 2 types of cells? Why is vitamin D essential?41. What role does Vitamin D play is ca++ absorption from the gut? How does Vitamin D become active42. Describe the stages in the repair of a bone fracture. Stress applied to a bone fracture does what? Are bones weaker after they are repaired? a.Fracture hematoma forms, soft callus forms, hard callus forms, bone is remodeled43. What is osteopenia? What is osteoporosis?44. What causes osteoporsis?a.