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The severity of the 1850 act led to abuses which ousted its purpose as the number of abolitionists increased, more personal liberty laws were enacted in the Northern States and the operations of the Underground Railroad were more efficient (Campbell). Among the personal liberty laws that were implemented in the northern states was a grievance from South Carolina inDecember 1860 that was officially referred to as justification for its secession from the union. This law resulted to sectional hostility in the same way as the controversy over slavery. The Underground Railroad was established in the United States in the mid-19th century as a network of secret routes and safe houses through which African- American slaves escaped to Free states with the help of abolitionists and allies who seemed sympathetic. The Underground Railroad is a term often used to refer to abolitionist both black and white, free or enslaved who aided the fugitives. Other routes led to Mexico or overseas.Following the opposition to the slave trade in the north, Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher was published in 1852 to show the life of a slave and shaped the role of women in campaigning for morality and humanity in the nation. The novel was published as a support for antislavery by increasing the opposition to slavery in the north. The novel helped to put a face onthe slaves turning them into people and not just work machines (Tindall). It also made people
Surname 5realize the impacts that slavery and slave trade had on the slaves. Thousands of copies of the journal were bought a short period after publication.The United States Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska act in 1854 in order to deal withthe continued American settlement in Kansas. By 1852, Americans desired to move into the area as many of them coveted the land along the Kansas and Platte rivers, which according to them would be profitable farms. Many business people desired a transcontinental railroad with a specific route that passed through Kansas. According to them a railroad across the United States would allow cheaper and faster transport of their products from the east to the west (McArthur). This would also allow the western farmers to transport their crops easily to the major states in theEast. Two major issues existed hampering the migration of the people who greatly desired the white settlements of Kansas. Firstly, the federal government had already promised that land to the American Indians, this would force the federal government to break previous treaties so as to forcibly relocate the American Indians many of whom had already started moving from their traditional places in the East. Secondly, the territory was part of the Louisiana Purchase territory that provided that the Kansas and Nebraska territories had to be free states where slavery would not be permitted.The Kansas-Nebraska Act was drafted by a Democratic senator, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and the president, Franklin Pierce in 1854 leading to the creation of Kansas and Nebraskaterritories. The main purpose of the act was to open up thousands of new farms and make a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad. The law contained a sovereignty clause that led to the formation of pro and anti-slavery elements with an aim of voting slavery up or down in Kansas which resulted in Bleeding Kansas. The "Bleeding Kansas" was a conflict between free-states