Persistent irrational fear of a specific object or

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Persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation that disrupts behavior Specific, identifiable stimulus that sets it off Social phobia – fear of humiliation in the presence of others Obsessive-Compulsive disorders Characterized by obsessions or compulsions Persistent thought that keeps reoccurring Irresistible urge to carry out some act Post-traumatic stress disorder Anxiety disorder triggered by exposure to a traumatic event Symptoms include: Re-experiencing the trauma Increased arousal Withdrawal  Post-traumatic Growth Positive changes that are a result of struggling with challenging circumstances Explaining anxiety disorders Learning Perspective Fear conditioning Observational learning Biological Perspective Natural selection Genes Mood Disorders
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Extreme disturbances in emotional behavior Types: Depression Person experiences depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in  variety of activities Bipolar Disorder Substantial mood fluctuations, cycling between very low and very high “Manic-depressive” indiscrete, risky behavior, inappropriate, lack inhibition More interfering than depression Understanding Mood Disorders Biological Perspective Genetic influences Norepinephrine and serotonin Social-Cognitive Perspective More likely to blame themselves for failures Schizophrenia Class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs Characterized by: Disorganized and delusional thought Typically have false beliefs/delusions Disturbed perception Hallucinations Inappropriate emotions and actions
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Catatonia Symptoms divided into 2 types: Positive – presence of inappropriate behavior Negative – absence of appropriate behavior Onset and Development Typically strikes as people are maturing into adulthood Tends to happen to men earlier than women Understanding Schizophrenia Brain Abnormalities Dopamine overactivity Maternal infections Abnormal brain activity and anatomy Little activity in frontal lobe Genetic Factors Psychological Factors Dissociative Disorders Extreme splits or gaps in memory, identity, or consciousness Types: Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Person develops at least 2 distinct personalities, each with its own memories, thoughts,  behaviors, and emotions More common in women Tends to develop in childhood Understanding DID
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Most develop as a result of a traumatic experience Diagnosis is controversial Personality Disorders Inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning Types: Schizotypical Isolated and asocial Paranoid Extremely suspicious and mistrustful Histrionic Desires to be the center of attention Borderline Out of control emotions Narcissistic Arrogant self image Antisocial Personality Disorder
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