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Unformatted text preview: affects the lungs, but the pathogen may invade other organisms as well • Latent TB- no symptoms, but it can become active at any time when the system becomes immunocompromised • Active TB- once it’s active then it’ll always be positive. Doesn’t mean it’s active symptoms are cough, dyspnea, night sweats then you’ll get a chest x ray to verify it’s positive if you have the symptoms Tuberculosis M. Tuberculosis: transmitted by oral droplets from persons with active infection High risk: living in crowded conditions, immunodeficiency, malnutrition, alcoholism, chronic disease, and HIV infection Usual cause of M. Tuberculosis : Restraint to disinfectants & can survive for weeks, and normal neutrophil response does not occur-Primarily effects the lungs; can go into other organs-Organism enters lungs, engulfed by macrophages. If cell-medicated immunity is adequate, mycobacteria reproduces, and destroys lung tissue If cell-mediated immunity is adequate: • Some bacilli migrate to lymph nodes- granuloma – formation of tubercle (contains live bacilli) –walled off and calcifying • Tubercle may be visible on chest radiograph • Bacilli may remain viable in a dormant stages for years • Individuals resistance and immune responses high- bacilli remains walled off • Primary or latent infection- individual has been exposed, infected, but does not have disease and is asymptomatic • Individual cannot transmit disease Secondary or Reinfection TB • Occurs when client’s cell-mediated immunity is impaired due to stress, malnutrition, HIV, infection, and age. The mycobacteria begin to reproduce and infect the lungs. Active TB, can be spread to others Miliary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis • Rapidly progressive form in children < 5 years • Early dissemination to other tissues, is not contagious if no lesions are found in lungs • Common symptoms include weight loss, failure to thrive, and other infections such as measles Active TB (either primary or secondary) • Organisms multiply, forming large areas of necrosis which causes large open areas in the lungs- cavitation • Cavitation promotes spreading into other parts of the lungs- infection my spread to the pleural cavity • Cough, positive sputum, radiograph showing cavitation • Disease in this form is highly infectious when there is a close personal contact over a period of time Diagnostic Test • First exposure or primary infection: indicated by positive tuberculin (skin) test results • Active infections: acid-fast sputum test, chest radiograph, sputum culture and sensitivity test Treatment • Long-term treatment with a combination of drugs • Length of treatment varies from 6 months to 1 year • Effective treatment requires monitoring and follow-up which is very...
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- Fall '11
- chest pain