With the notion that economic inequality is unjust

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with the notion that economic inequality is unjust and “nothing is unfair about economic inequality, provided it arises without force or fraud” or essentially the unique choices that each individual makes in the free-market. This realist form of thinking does not take into consideration the overall happiness of the society but rather focuses on the individual right of the person. By utilitarian methods of reasoning, the government should be able to tax the rich and redistribute this income to the poor until the person being taxed is finally affected. At this point, this would be decreasing the overall utility and therefore would be considered ‘unethical’. After establishing the moral values that distinguish libertarian from utilitarian Sandel goes more into depth with the two parties particularly concerning their cases for the market. As Sandel describes “The case for the free market typically rests on two claims – one about freedom, the other about welfare.” Libertarians, as noted, value individual rights and therefore would argue the case of freedom where little to no government intervention existed in the market to interfere with consensual transactions. On the Utilitarian side, the argument would be made in favor of welfare or the common good of society which in essence would mean the redistribution of wealth to those of poorer financial standing. The remainder of the first half of the book Sandel progressively contrasts the two sides of the spectrum and offers objections for each scenario whilst providing rationale from both standpoints. Issues such as surrogate pregnancies, volunteer armies, outsourcing private defense contractors, and etc., are all used to shed light on the conflicting moral issues presented with each scenario. Evaluation: I believe Sandel did an extraordinary job with touching on every possible objection/argument that could be provided from both sides on every issue presented. The book clearly demonstrates the fundamental differences that distinguish the libertarian vs utilitarian perception of justice. Up to this half, I believe that the central message the book conveys is that under different convictions, ones’ definition of justice – and its underlying aspects such as freedom, welfare, and virtue – may vary from person to person even from libertarian to libertarian.
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