ii. Kyoto team (Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University) 1. Also given human cells taken from skin and connective tissues stem cell properties 2. Using the same technique as that of Thompson but with a slightly different combination of genes, the Japanese researchers report they were able to reprogram 10 cells out of every 50,000 3. "We should now be able to generate patient- and disease-specific [induced pluripotent stem] cells and then make various cells, such as cardiac cells, liver cells, and neural cells," team leader Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University said in a statement. iii. The collaborative work was led by Daley and conducted by researchers at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Children’s Hospital Boston, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital 1. Daley and his team used the human analogs of those same four factors to cause human skin cells to become pluripotent. 2. In their work, they found that two of the factors, called Oct4 and Sox2, plus one of the two remaining factors, either Klf4 or Myc, were required for the process to work. It worked best, however, when all four factors were present. 3. Interested in using the induced pluripotent cells to create cell lines from patients with various blood diseases, including sickle-cell anemia and Fanconi anemia, a hereditary disease where the bone marrow doesn’t produce enough new cells to replenish the blood. b. Advantages of using reprogrammed skin cells for therapeutic purposes i. Could be used to generate patient-specific cell lines ii. Thomson explains. "Immune rejection should not be a problem using these cells." iii. In the new study, to induce the skin cells to what scientists call a pluripotent state, a condition that is essentially the same as that of embryonic stem cells 3
c. Potential Problems… i. Genes are introduced through the use of a retrovirus that incorporates into the host cell DNA ii. Depending upon where the gene sequence inserts, it may cause trouble (including cancers).
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- Fall '15