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housework and men’s housework decreases Take AwayoCohabitation has increased for everybody across all age groups!o-sciences/ °°Single Parent Households Most single parent households include a mother only, but have increased for men, too since 1958oMother only households have increased from 8%-o8%- 24% from 1958-2014oFather only have increased from 1%-4%More of today’s single mothers have never been married, but the estimates below ignore parents who are unmarried but cohabiting
The Makeup of Single Mothers, 1960-2011 o196082% Divorced, separated, widowed4% Never Married14% Spouse absent o201150% Divorced, separated, widowed44% Never Married6% Spouse absent osome of the 44% of 2011 has most likely increased do to cohabiting families but the parents aren’t legally marriedIf we exclude “single parents” who are unmarried but cohabiting with the other parentoMen and women interviewed between 2006-2010: Among men and women 15 to 44 who have had a first birth, 24% of women and 16% of men say they were single at the time of their first birth (never married and not cohabiting) Median family income is lower in single-parent families than two parent familiesoSingle Mothers20,000-30,000 (1975-2012)oSingle Fathers45,000-35,000 (1975-2012)oMarried60,000-85,000 (1975-2012)For children in single- mother families, the most common family income is under 25K per yearoMost common for single mothers is under 25,000
oMost common for married couples is 50,000-100,000/ yearChildren in single-parent families face potential scarcitiesoMoneyLower incomes make it difficult to meet basic needsget housing in safe areassecure good educationoTimeOnly one parent, who usually must work to support children, means less time to spend with kids, and less supervision/ support Intendedness status of single first births by age at birth, among women
08/26/2015oRace/Ethnicity & FamiliesRace groupsoA group of people believed to share common descent based on perceived innate physical similarities Physical characteristicsSkin color, hair texture, facial features, etc.Ethnic groupsoA group of people with a common cultural identification, based on a common language, religion, ancestral origin, or traditional practices.Any kind of identity based upon a shared language, culture, religion, etc. Race/ ethnic boundaries socially create: reflect cultural norms, social inequality, and political powerU.S. Structured around 5 racial-ethnic groupsoAfrican AmericansoHispanicsoAsian and Pacific IslandersoNative AmericansoNoon-Hispanic White Roles of Marriage and extended family vary across ethnic groups°African- American FamiliesGreater % of single-parent families than any other groupo72% of black children are born to unmarried mothersoMore than ½ of all black family households are headed by single parentDecline in marriage rates has dropped more than Blacks than for other racial/ ethnic groups
oPercentage of adults married, total U.S. and black population (graph)°Explaining the TrendsNot due to differential morals, values, or proclivities towards marriage, parenting, etc.