14 which description of the four stages of labor is

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14. Which description of the four stages of labor is correct for both the definition and the duration? a. First stage: onset of regular uterine contractions to full dilation; less than 1 hour to 20 hours b. Second stage: full effacement to 4 to 5 cm; visible presenting part; 1 to
2 hours c. Third stage: active pushing to birth; 20 minutes (multiparous woman), 50 minutes (nulliparous woman) d. Fourth stage: delivery of the placenta to recovery; 30 minutes to 1 hour ANS: A Full dilation may occur in less than 1 hour, but in first-time pregnancies full dilation can take up to 20 hours. The second stage of labor extends from full dilation to birth and takes an average of 20 to 50 minutes, although 2 hours is still considered normal. The third stage of labor extends from birth to the expulsion of the placenta and usually takes a few minutes. The fourth stage begins after the expulsion of the placenta and lasts until homeostasis is reestablished (approximately 2 hours). DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: pp. 376-377 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 15. Nurses should be cognizant of what regarding the mechanism of labor?
d. At birth, the baby is said to achieve “restitution”; that is, a return to the C-shape of the womb. ANS: C The size of the maternal pelvis and the ability of the fetal head to mold also affect the process. The seven identifiable movements of the mechanism of labor simultaneously occur in combinations, not in precise sequences. Asynclitism is the deflection of the baby’s head; the Leopold’s maneuver is a means of judging descent by palpating the mother’s abdomen. Restitution is the rotation of the baby’s head after the infant is born. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 377 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning | Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 16. Which statement related to fetal positioning during labor is correct and important for the nurse to understand?
The station of the presenting part should be noted at the beginning of labor to determine the rate of descent. Position is the relationship of the presenting part of the fetus to the four quadrants of the mother’s pelvis; station is the measure of degree of descent. The largest diameter is usually the biparietal diameter. The suboccipitobregmatic diameter is the smallest, although one of the most critical.

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